Lower Bounds for Polynomial Calculus with Extension Variables over Finite Fields

Authors Russell Impagliazzo, Sasank Mouli, Toniann Pitassi

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Author Details

Russell Impagliazzo
  • University of California San Diego, CA, USA
Sasank Mouli
  • Hyderabad, India
Toniann Pitassi
  • Columbia University, New York, NY, USA


The authors would like to thank Paul Beame and Dmitry Sokolov for helpful discussions.

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Russell Impagliazzo, Sasank Mouli, and Toniann Pitassi. Lower Bounds for Polynomial Calculus with Extension Variables over Finite Fields. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 7:1-7:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


For every prime p > 0, every n > 0 and κ = O(log n), we show the existence of an unsatisfiable system of polynomial equations over O(n log n) variables of degree O(log n) such that any Polynomial Calculus refutation over 𝔽_p with M extension variables, each depending on at most κ original variables requires size exp(Ω(n²)/10^κ(M + n log n))

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Proof complexity
  • Proof complexity
  • Algebraic proof systems
  • Polynomial Calculus
  • Extension variables
  • AC⁰[p]-Frege


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