Expresiveness and Complexity Results for Strategic Reasoning

Authors Julian Gutierrez, Paul Harrenstein, Michael Wooldridge

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Julian Gutierrez
Paul Harrenstein
Michael Wooldridge

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Julian Gutierrez, Paul Harrenstein, and Michael Wooldridge. Expresiveness and Complexity Results for Strategic Reasoning. In 26th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 42, pp. 268-282, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)


This paper presents a range of expressiveness and complexity results for the specification, computation, and verification of Nash equilibria in multi-player non-zero-sum concurrent games in which players have goals expressed as temporal logic formulae. Our results are based on a novel approach to the characterisation of equilibria in such games: a semantic characterisation based on winning strategies and memoryful reasoning. This characterisation allows us to obtain a number of other results relating to the analysis of equilibrium properties in temporal logic. We show that, up to bisimilarity, reasoning about Nash equilibria in multi-player non-zero-sum concurrent games can be done in ATL^* and that constructing equilibrium strategy profiles in such games can be done in 2EXPTIME using finite-memory strategies. We also study two simpler cases, two-player games and sequential games, and show that the specification of equilibria in the latter setting can be obtained in a temporal logic that is weaker than ATL^*. Based on these results, we settle a few open problems, put forward new logical characterisations of equilibria, and provide improved answers and alternative solutions to a number of questions.
  • Temporal logic
  • Nash equilibrium
  • game models
  • formal verification


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