Semantics for "Enough-Certainty" and Fitting's Embedding of Classical Logic in S4

Authors Gergei Bana, Mitsuhiro Okada

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Gergei Bana
Mitsuhiro Okada

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Gergei Bana and Mitsuhiro Okada. Semantics for "Enough-Certainty" and Fitting's Embedding of Classical Logic in S4. In 25th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 62, pp. 34:1-34:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


In this work we look at how Fitting's embedding of first-order classical logic into first-order S4 can help in reasoning when we are interested in satisfaction "in most cases", when first-order properties are allowed to fail in cases that are considered insignificant. We extend classical semantics by combining a Kripke-style model construction of "significant" events as possible worlds with the forcing-Fitting-style semantics construction by embedding classical logic into S4. We provide various examples. Our main running example is an application to symbolic security protocol verification with complexity-theoretic guarantees. In particular, we show how Fitting's embedding emerges entirely naturally when verifying trace properties in computer security.
  • first-order logic
  • possible-world semantics
  • Fitting embedding
  • asymptotic probabilities
  • verification of complexity-theoretic properties


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