Cordial Miners: Fast and Efficient Consensus for Every Eventuality

Authors Idit Keidar, Oded Naor, Ouri Poupko, Ehud Shapiro

Thumbnail PDF


  • Filesize: 1.71 MB
  • 22 pages

Document Identifiers

Author Details

Idit Keidar
  • Technion, Haifa, Israel
Oded Naor
  • Technion, Haifa, Israel
  • StarkWare Industries Ltd., Netanya, Israel
Ouri Poupko
  • Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel
Ehud Shapiro
  • Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel


Ehud Shapiro is the Incumbent of The Harry Weinrebe Professorial Chair of Computer Science and Biology at the Weizmann Institute.

Cite AsGet BibTex

Idit Keidar, Oded Naor, Ouri Poupko, and Ehud Shapiro. Cordial Miners: Fast and Efficient Consensus for Every Eventuality. In 37th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 281, pp. 26:1-26:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


Cordial Miners are a family of efficient Byzantine Atomic Broadcast protocols, with instances for asynchrony and eventual synchrony. They improve the latency of state-of-the-art DAG-based protocols by almost 2× and achieve optimal good-case complexity of O(n) by forgoing Reliable Broadcast as a building block. Rather, Cordial Miners use the blocklace - a partially-ordered counterpart of the totally-ordered blockchain data structure - to implement the three algorithmic components of consensus: Dissemination, equivocation-exclusion, and ordering.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Computing methodologies → Distributed algorithms
  • Byzantine Fault Tolerance
  • State Machine Replication
  • DAG
  • Consensus
  • Blockchain
  • Blocklace
  • Cordial Dissemination


  • Access Statistics
  • Total Accesses (updated on a weekly basis)
    PDF Downloads


  1. Ittai Abraham, Dahlia Malkhi, and Alexander Spiegelman. Asymptotically optimal validated asynchronous byzantine agreement. In Proceedings of the 2019 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pages 337-346, 2019. Google Scholar
  2. Ittai Abraham, Kartik Nayak, Ling Ren, and Zhuolun Xiang. Good-case latency of Byzantine broadcast: A complete categorization. In Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pages 331-341, 2021. Google Scholar
  3. Hagit Attiya and Jennifer Welch. Distributed computing: fundamentals, simulations, and advanced topics, volume 19. John Wiley & Sons, 2004. Google Scholar
  4. Leemon Baird. The swirlds Hashgraph consensus algorithm: Fair, fast, Byzantine fault tolerance. Report, Swirlds, 2016. Google Scholar
  5. Michael Ben-Or, Ran Canetti, and Oded Goldreich. Asynchronous secure computation. In Proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing, pages 52-61, 1993. Google Scholar
  6. Dan Boneh, Ben Lynn, and Hovav Shacham. Short signatures from the weil pairing. In International conference on the theory and application of cryptology and information security, pages 514-532. Springer, 2001. Google Scholar
  7. Gabriel Bracha. Asynchronous Byzantine agreement protocols. Information and Computation, 75(2):130-143, 1987. Google Scholar
  8. Ethan Buchman. Tendermint: Byzantine fault tolerance in the age of blockchains. PhD thesis, University of Guelph, 2016. Google Scholar
  9. Christian Cachin, Klaus Kursawe, Frank Petzold, and Victor Shoup. Secure and efficient asynchronous broadcast protocols. In Annual International Cryptology Conference, pages 524-541. Springer, 2001. Google Scholar
  10. Christian Cachin, Klaus Kursawe, and Victor Shoup. Random oracles in Constantinople: Practical asynchronous byzantine agreement using cryptography. Journal of Cryptology, 18(3):219-246, 2005. Google Scholar
  11. Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov. Practical Byzantine fault tolerance. In Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation, pages 173-186, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 1999. USENIX Association. Google Scholar
  12. Gregory V Chockler, Nabil Huleihel, and Danny Dolev. An adaptive totally ordered multicast protocol that tolerates partitions. In Proceedings of the seventeenth annual ACM symposium on Principles of distributed computing, pages 237-246, 1998. Google Scholar
  13. George Danezis and David Hrycyszyn. Blockmania: from block DAGs to consensus. arXiv preprint arXiv:1809.01620, 2018. Google Scholar
  14. George Danezis, Lefteris Kokoris-Kogias, Alberto Sonnino, and Alexander Spiegelman. Narwhal and tusk: a dag-based mempool and efficient bft consensus. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth European Conference on Computer Systems, pages 34-50, 2022. Google Scholar
  15. Sourav Das, Zhuolun Xiang, and Ling Ren. Asynchronous data dissemination and its applications. In Proceedings of the 2021 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 2705-2721, 2021. Google Scholar
  16. Sourav Das, Zhuolun Xiang, and Ling Ren. Near-optimal balanced reliable broadcast and asynchronous verifiable information dispersal. Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2022. Google Scholar
  17. Danny Dolev and Eli Gafni. Some garbage in-some garbage out: Asynchronous t-byzantine as asynchronous benign t-resilient system with fixed t-trojan-horse inputs. arXiv preprint arXiv:1607.01210, 2016. Google Scholar
  18. Danny Dolev, Shlomo Kramer, and Dalia Malki. Early delivery totally ordered multicast in asynchronous environments. In FTCS-23 The Twenty-Third International Symposium on Fault-Tolerant Computing, pages 544-553. IEEE, 1993. Google Scholar
  19. Danny Dolev and Rüdiger Reischuk. Bounds on information exchange for byzantine agreement. Journal of the ACM (JACM), 32(1):191-204, 1985. Google Scholar
  20. Adam Gągol and Michał Świętek. Aleph: A leaderless, asynchronous, byzantine fault tolerant consensus protocol. arXiv preprint arXiv:1810.05256, 2018. Google Scholar
  21. Idit Keidar, Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias, Oded Naor, and Alexander Spiegelman. All you need is dag. In Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pages 165-175, 2021. Google Scholar
  22. Idit Keidar, Oded Naor, and Ehud Shapiro. Cordial miners: A family of simple, efficient and self-contained consensus protocols for every eventuality. arXiv preprint arXiv:2205.09174, 2022. Google Scholar
  23. Benoît Libert, Marc Joye, and Moti Yung. Born and raised distributively: Fully distributed non-interactive adaptively-secure threshold signatures with short shares. Theoretical Computer Science, 645:1-24, 2016. Google Scholar
  24. Dahlia Malkhi and Kartik Nayak. Hotstuff-2: Optimal two-phase responsive bft. Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2023. Google Scholar
  25. Serguei Popov. The tangle., 2018.
  26. Team Rocket, Maofan Yin, Kevin Sekniqi, Robbert van Renesse, and Emin Gün Sirer. Scalable and probabilistic leaderless bft consensus through metastability. arXiv preprint arXiv:1906.08936, 2019. Google Scholar
  27. Maria A Schett and George Danezis. Embedding a deterministic BFT protocol in a block DAG. In Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pages 177-186, 2021. Google Scholar
  28. Ehud Shapiro. Multiagent transition systems: Protocol-stack mathematics for distributed computing. arXiv preprint arXiv:2112.13650, 2021. Google Scholar
  29. Ehud Shapiro. Grassroots distributed systems: Concept, examples, implementation and applications. arXiv preprint arXiv:2301.04391, 2023. Google Scholar
  30. Robert Shostak, Marshall Pease, and Leslie Lamport. The Byzantine generals problem. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, 4(3):382-401, 1982. Google Scholar
  31. Victor Shoup. Practical threshold signatures. In International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, pages 207-220. Springer, 2000. Google Scholar
  32. Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar. Secure high-rate transaction processing in Bitcoin. In International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pages 507-527. Springer, 2015. Google Scholar
  33. Alexander Spiegelman, Neil Giridharan, Alberto Sonnino, and Lefteris Kokoris-Kogias. Bullshark: Dag bft protocols made practical. In Proceedings of the 2022 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 2705-2718, 2022. Google Scholar
  34. Maofan Yin, Dahlia Malkhi, Michael K Reiter, Guy Golan Gueta, and Ittai Abraham. Hotstuff: Bft consensus with linearity and responsiveness. In Proceedings of the 2019 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pages 347-356, 2019. Google Scholar
Questions / Remarks / Feedback

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing

Thanks for your feedback!

Feedback submitted

Could not send message

Please try again later or send an E-mail