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CPU Energy-Aware Parallel Real-Time Scheduling

Authors Abusayeed Saifullah , Sezana Fahmida, Venkata P. Modekurthy, Nathan Fisher, Zhishan Guo



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Author Details

Abusayeed Saifullah
  • Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
Sezana Fahmida
  • Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
Venkata P. Modekurthy
  • Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
Nathan Fisher
  • Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
Zhishan Guo
  • University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

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Abusayeed Saifullah, Sezana Fahmida, Venkata P. Modekurthy, Nathan Fisher, and Zhishan Guo. CPU Energy-Aware Parallel Real-Time Scheduling. In 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 165, pp. 2:1-2:26, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.2

Abstract

Both energy-efficiency and real-time performance are critical requirements in many embedded systems applications such as self-driving car, robotic system, disaster response, and security/safety control. These systems entail a myriad of real-time tasks, where each task itself is a parallel task that can utilize multiple computing units at the same time. Driven by the increasing demand for parallel tasks, multi-core embedded processors are inevitably evolving to many-core. Existing work on real-time parallel tasks mostly focused on real-time scheduling without addressing energy consumption. In this paper, we address hard real-time scheduling of parallel tasks while minimizing their CPU energy consumption on multicore embedded systems. Each task is represented as a directed acyclic graph (DAG) with nodes indicating different threads of execution and edges indicating their dependencies. Our technique is to determine the execution speeds of the nodes of the DAGs to minimize the overall energy consumption while meeting all task deadlines. It incorporates a frequency optimization engine and the dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) scheme into the classical real-time scheduling policies (both federated and global) and makes them energy-aware. The contributions of this paper thus include the first energy-aware online federated scheduling and also the first energy-aware global scheduling of DAGs. Evaluation using synthetic workload through simulation shows that our energy-aware real-time scheduling policies can achieve up to 68% energy-saving compared to classical (energy-unaware) policies. We have also performed a proof of concept system evaluation using physical hardware demonstrating the energy efficiency through our proposed approach.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Computer systems organization → Real-time system specification
Keywords
  • Real-time scheduling
  • multicore
  • energy-efficiency
  • embedded systems

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