Sum of Products of Read-Once Formulas

Authors Ramya C., B. V. Raghavendra Rao

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Ramya C.
B. V. Raghavendra Rao

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Ramya C. and B. V. Raghavendra Rao. Sum of Products of Read-Once Formulas. In 36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 65, pp. 39:1-39:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


We study limitations of polynomials computed by depth two circuits built over read-once formulas (ROFs). In particular, 1. We prove an exponential lower bound for the sum of ROFs computing the 2n-variate polynomial in VP defined by Raz and Yehudayoff [CC,2009]. 2. We obtain an exponential lower bound on the size of arithmetic circuits computing sum of products of restricted ROFs of unbounded depth computing the permanent of an n by n matrix. The restriction is on the number of variables with + gates as a parent in a proper sub formula of the ROF to be bounded by sqrt(n). Additionally, we restrict the product fan in to be bounded by a sub linear function. This proves an exponential lower bound for a subclass of possibly non-multilinear formulas of unbounded depth computing the permanent polynomial. 3. We also show an exponential lower bound for the above model against a polynomial in VP. 4. Finally we observe that the techniques developed yield an exponential lower bound on the size of sums of products of syntactically multilinear arithmetic circuits computing a product of variable disjoint linear forms where the bottom sum gate and product gates at the second level have fan in bounded by a sub linear function. Our proof techniques are built on the measure developed by Kumar et al.[ICALP 2013] and are based on a non-trivial analysis of ROFs under random partitions. Further, our results exhibit strengths and provide more insight into the lower bound techniques introduced by Raz [STOC 2004].
  • Arithmetic Circuits
  • Permanent
  • Computational Complexity
  • Algebraic Complexity Theory


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