Document # Univariate Ideal Membership Parameterized by Rank, Degree, and Number of Generators

### Authors V. Arvind, Abhranil Chatterjee, Rajit Datta, Partha Mukhopadhyay ## File

LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2018.7.pdf
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## Cite As

V. Arvind, Abhranil Chatterjee, Rajit Datta, and Partha Mukhopadhyay. Univariate Ideal Membership Parameterized by Rank, Degree, and Number of Generators. In 38th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 122, pp. 7:1-7:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2018.7

## Abstract

Let F[X] be the polynomial ring over the variables X={x_1,x_2, ..., x_n}. An ideal I= <p_1(x_1), ..., p_n(x_n)> generated by univariate polynomials {p_i(x_i)}_{i=1}^n is a univariate ideal. We study the ideal membership problem for the univariate ideals and show the following results. - Let f(X) in F[l_1, ..., l_r] be a (low rank) polynomial given by an arithmetic circuit where l_i : 1 <= i <= r are linear forms, and I=<p_1(x_1), ..., p_n(x_n)> be a univariate ideal. Given alpha in F^n, the (unique) remainder f(X) mod I can be evaluated at alpha in deterministic time d^{O(r)} * poly(n), where d=max {deg(f),deg(p_1)...,deg(p_n)}. This yields a randomized n^{O(r)} algorithm for minimum vertex cover in graphs with rank-r adjacency matrices. It also yields an n^{O(r)} algorithm for evaluating the permanent of a n x n matrix of rank r, over any field F. Over Q, an algorithm of similar run time for low rank permanent is due to Barvinok [Barvinok, 1996] via a different technique. - Let f(X)in F[X] be given by an arithmetic circuit of degree k (k treated as fixed parameter) and I=<p_1(x_1), ..., p_n(x_n)>. We show that in the special case when I=<x_1^{e_1}, ..., x_n^{e_n}>, we obtain a randomized O^*(4.08^k) algorithm that uses poly(n,k) space. - Given f(X)in F[X] by an arithmetic circuit and I=<p_1(x_1), ..., p_k(x_k)>, membership testing is W-hard, parameterized by k. The problem is MINI-hard in the special case when I=<x_1^{e_1}, ..., x_k^{e_k}>.

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Theory of computation → Design and analysis of algorithms
##### Keywords
• Combinatorial Nullstellensatz
• Ideal Membership
• Parametric Hardness
• Low Rank Permanent

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