Robustly Separating the Arithmetic Monotone Hierarchy via Graph Inner-Product

Authors Arkadev Chattopadhyay, Utsab Ghosal, Partha Mukhopadhyay

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Arkadev Chattopadhyay
  • TIFR, Mumbai, India
Utsab Ghosal
  • Chennai Mathematical Institute, India
Partha Mukhopadhyay
  • Chennai Mathematical Institute, India


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Arkadev Chattopadhyay, Utsab Ghosal, and Partha Mukhopadhyay. Robustly Separating the Arithmetic Monotone Hierarchy via Graph Inner-Product. In 42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 250, pp. 12:1-12:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


We establish an ε-sensitive hierarchy separation for monotone arithmetic computations. The notion of ε-sensitive monotone lower bounds was recently introduced by Hrubeš [Pavel Hrubeš, 2020]. We show the following: - There exists a monotone polynomial over n variables in VNP that cannot be computed by 2^o(n) size monotone circuits in an ε-sensitive way as long as ε ≥ 2^(-Ω(n)). - There exists a polynomial over n variables that can be computed by polynomial size monotone circuits but cannot be computed by any monotone arithmetic branching program (ABP) of n^o(log n) size, even in an ε-sensitive fashion as long as ε ≥ n^(-Ω(log n)). - There exists a polynomial over n variables that can be computed by polynomial size monotone ABPs but cannot be computed in n^o(log n) size by monotone formulas even in an ε-sensitive way, when ε ≥ n^(-Ω(log n)). - There exists a polynomial over n variables that can be computed by width-4 polynomial size monotone arithmetic branching programs (ABPs) but cannot be computed in 2^o(n^{1/d}) size by monotone, unbounded fan-in formulas of product depth d even in an ε-sensitive way, when ε ≥ 2^(-Ω(n^{1/d})). This yields an ε-sensitive separation of constant-depth monotone formulas and constant-width monotone ABPs. The novel feature of our separations is that in each case the polynomial exhibited is obtained from a graph inner-product polynomial by choosing an appropriate graph topology. The closely related graph inner-product Boolean function for expander graphs was invented by Hayes [Thomas P. Hayes, 2011], also independently by Pitassi [Toniann Pitassi, 2009], in the context of best-partition multiparty communication complexity.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Algebraic complexity theory
  • Algebraic Complexity
  • Discrepancy
  • Lower Bounds
  • Monotone Computations


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