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Do Distributed Differentially-Private Protocols Require Oblivious Transfer?

Authors Vipul Goyal, Dakshita Khurana, Ilya Mironov, Omkant Pandey, Amit Sahai



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Vipul Goyal
Dakshita Khurana
Ilya Mironov
Omkant Pandey
Amit Sahai

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Vipul Goyal, Dakshita Khurana, Ilya Mironov, Omkant Pandey, and Amit Sahai. Do Distributed Differentially-Private Protocols Require Oblivious Transfer?. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 29:1-29:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.29

Abstract

We study the cryptographic complexity of two-party differentially-private protocols for a large natural class of boolean functionalities. Information theoretically, McGregor et al. [FOCS 2010] and Goyal et al. [Crypto 2013] demonstrated several functionalities for which the maximal possible accuracy in the distributed setting is significantly lower than that in the client-server setting. Goyal et al. [Crypto 2013] further showed that "highly accurate" protocols in the distributed setting for any non-trivial functionality in fact imply the existence of one-way functions. However, it has remained an open problem to characterize the exact cryptographic complexity of this class. In particular, we know that semi-honest oblivious transfer helps obtain optimally accurate distributed differential privacy. But we do not know whether the reverse is true. We study the following question: Does the existence of optimally accurate distributed differentially private protocols for any class of functionalities imply the existence of oblivious transfer (or equivalently secure multi-party computation)? We resolve this question in the affirmative for the class of boolean functionalities that contain an XOR embedded on adjacent inputs. We give a reduction from oblivious transfer to: - Any distributed optimally accurate epsilon-differentially private protocol with epsilon > 0 computing a functionality with a boolean XOR embedded on adjacent inputs. - Any distributed non-optimally accurate epsilon-differentially private protocol with epsilon > 0, for a constant range of non-optimal accuracies and constant range of values of epsilon, computing a functionality with a boolean XOR embedded on adjacent inputs. Enroute to proving these results, we demonstrate a connection between optimally-accurate twoparty differentially-private protocols for functions with a boolean XOR embedded on adjacent inputs, and noisy channels, which were shown by Crépeau and Kilian [FOCS 1988] to be sufficient for oblivious transfer.
Keywords
  • Oblivious Transfer
  • Distributed Differential Privacy
  • Noisy Channels
  • Weak Noisy Channels

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