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Dynamic Parameterized Problems and Algorithms

Authors Josh Alman, Matthias Mnich, Virginia Vassilevska Williams



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Josh Alman
Matthias Mnich
Virginia Vassilevska Williams

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Josh Alman, Matthias Mnich, and Virginia Vassilevska Williams. Dynamic Parameterized Problems and Algorithms. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 41:1-41:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.41

Abstract

Fixed-parameter algorithms and kernelization are two powerful methods to solve NP-hard problems. Yet, so far those algorithms have been largely restricted to static inputs. In this paper we provide fixed-parameter algorithms and kernelizations for fundamental NP-hard problems with dynamic inputs. We consider a variety of parameterized graph and hitting set problems which are known to have f(k)n^{1+o(1)} time algorithms on inputs of size n, and we consider the question of whether there is a data structure that supports small updates (such as edge/vertex/set/element insertions and deletions) with an update time of g(k)n^{o(1)}; such an update time would be essentially optimal. Update and query times independent of n are particularly desirable. Among many other results, we show that Feedback Vertex Set and k-Path admit dynamic algorithms with f(k)log O(1) n update and query times for some function f depending on the solution size k only. We complement our positive results by several conditional and unconditional lower bounds. For example, we show that unlike their undirected counterparts, Directed Feedback Vertex Set and Directed k-Path do not admit dynamic algorithms with n^{o(1) } update and query times even for constant solution sizes k <= 3, assuming popular hardness hypotheses. We also show that unconditionally, in the cell probe model, Directed Feedback Vertex Set cannot be solved with update time that is purely a function of k.
Keywords
  • Dynamic algorithms
  • fixed-parameter algorithms

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