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Mathias Bæk Tejs Knudsen. Additive Spanners and Distance Oracles in Quadratic Time. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 64:1-64:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.64

## Abstract

Let G be an unweighted, undirected graph. An additive k-spanner of G is a subgraph H that approximates all distances between pairs of nodes up to an additive error of +k, that is, it satisfies d_H(u,v) <= d_G(u,v)+k for all nodes u,v, where d is the shortest path distance. We give a deterministic algorithm that constructs an additive O(1)-spanner with O(n^(4/3)) edges in O(n^2) time. This should be compared with the randomized Monte Carlo algorithm by Woodruff [ICALP 2010] giving an additive 6-spanner with O(n^(4/3)log^3 n) edges in expected time O(n^2 log^2 n). An (alpha,beta)-approximate distance oracle for G is a data structure that supports the following distance queries between pairs of nodes in G. Given two nodes u, v it can in constant time compute a distance estimate d' that satisfies d <= d' <= alpha d + beta where d is the distance between u and v in G. Sommer [ICALP 2016] gave a randomized Monte Carlo (2,1)-distance oracle of size O(n^(5/3) polylog n) in expected time O(n^2 polylog n). As an application of the additive O(1)-spanner we improve the construction by Sommer [ICALP 2016] and give a Las Vegas (2,1)-distance oracle of size O(n^(5/3)) in time O(n^2). This also implies an algorithm that in O(n^2) time gives approximate distance for all pairs of nodes in G improving on the O(n^2 log n) algorithm by Baswana and Kavitha [SICOMP 2010].
##### Keywords
• graph algorithms
• data structures
• distance oracles

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