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# The Satisfiability Threshold for Non-Uniform Random 2-SAT

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LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.61.pdf
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## Cite As

Tobias Friedrich and Ralf Rothenberger. The Satisfiability Threshold for Non-Uniform Random 2-SAT. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 61:1-61:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.61

## Abstract

Propositional satisfiability (SAT) is one of the most fundamental problems in computer science. Its worst-case hardness lies at the core of computational complexity theory, for example in the form of NP-hardness and the (Strong) Exponential Time Hypothesis. In practice however, SAT instances can often be solved efficiently. This contradicting behavior has spawned interest in the average-case analysis of SAT and has triggered the development of sophisticated rigorous and non-rigorous techniques for analyzing random structures. Despite a long line of research and substantial progress, most theoretical work on random SAT assumes a uniform distribution on the variables. In contrast, real-world instances often exhibit large fluctuations in variable occurrence. This can be modeled by a non-uniform distribution of the variables, which can result in distributions closer to industrial SAT instances. We study satisfiability thresholds of non-uniform random 2-SAT with n variables and m clauses and with an arbitrary probability distribution (p_i)_{i in[n]} with p_1 >=slant p_2 >=slant ... >=slant p_n>0 over the n variables. We show for p_{1}^2=Theta (sum_{i=1}^n p_i^2) that the asymptotic satisfiability threshold is at {m=Theta ((1-{sum_{i=1}^n p_i^2})/(p_1 * (sum_{i=2}^n p_i^2)^{1/2}))} and that it is coarse. For p_{1}^2=o (sum_{i=1}^n p_i^2) we show that there is a sharp satisfiability threshold at m=(sum_{i=1}^n p_i^2)^{-1}. This result generalizes the seminal works by Chvatal and Reed [FOCS 1992] and by Goerdt [JCSS 1996].

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Theory of computation → Generating random combinatorial structures
##### Keywords
• random SAT
• satisfiability threshold
• sharpness
• non-uniform distribution
• 2-SAT

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