Counting Perfect Matchings and the Eight-Vertex Model

Authors Jin-Yi Cai, Tianyu Liu

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Jin-Yi Cai
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA
Tianyu Liu
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA

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Jin-Yi Cai and Tianyu Liu. Counting Perfect Matchings and the Eight-Vertex Model. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 23:1-23:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


We study the approximation complexity of the partition function of the eight-vertex model on general 4-regular graphs. For the first time, we relate the approximability of the eight-vertex model to the complexity of approximately counting perfect matchings, a central open problem in this field. Our results extend those in [Jin-Yi Cai et al., 2018]. In a region of the parameter space where no previous approximation complexity was known, we show that approximating the partition function is at least as hard as approximately counting perfect matchings via approximation-preserving reductions. In another region of the parameter space which is larger than the region that is previously known to admit Fully Polynomial Randomized Approximation Scheme (FPRAS), we show that computing the partition function can be reduced to counting perfect matchings (which is valid for both exact and approximate counting). Moreover, we give a complete characterization of nonnegatively weighted (not necessarily planar) 4-ary matchgates, which has been open for several years. The key ingredient of our proof is a geometric lemma. We also identify a region of the parameter space where approximating the partition function on planar 4-regular graphs is feasible but on general 4-regular graphs is equivalent to approximately counting perfect matchings. To our best knowledge, these are the first problems that exhibit this dichotomic behavior between the planar and the nonplanar settings in approximate counting.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Problems, reductions and completeness
  • Approximate complexity
  • the eight-vertex model
  • counting perfect matchings


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