Crossing-Optimal Extension of Simple Drawings

Authors Robert Ganian , Thekla Hamm, Fabian Klute , Irene Parada , Birgit Vogtenhuber

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Author Details

Robert Ganian
  • Algorithms and Complexity Group, TU Wien, Austria
Thekla Hamm
  • Algorithms and Complexity Group, TU Wien, Austria
Fabian Klute
  • Deptartment of Information and Computing Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
Irene Parada
  • TU Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Birgit Vogtenhuber
  • Graz University of Technology, Austria


This work was started during the Austrian Computational Geometry Reunion Meeting in Strobl (Austria), August 10 to 14, 2020. We thank all the participants for the nice working atmosphere as well as fruitful discussions on this as well as other topics. The authors would also like to thank Eduard Eiben for his insightful comments.

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Robert Ganian, Thekla Hamm, Fabian Klute, Irene Parada, and Birgit Vogtenhuber. Crossing-Optimal Extension of Simple Drawings. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 72:1-72:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


In extension problems of partial graph drawings one is given an incomplete drawing of an input graph G and is asked to complete the drawing while maintaining certain properties. A prominent area where such problems arise is that of crossing minimization. For plane drawings and various relaxations of these, there is a number of tractability as well as lower-bound results exploring the computational complexity of crossing-sensitive drawing extension problems. In contrast, comparatively few results are known on extension problems for the fundamental and broad class of simple drawings, that is, drawings in which each pair of edges intersects in at most one point. In fact, the extension problem of simple drawings has only recently been shown to be NP-hard even for inserting a single edge. In this paper we present tractability results for the crossing-sensitive extension problem of simple drawings. In particular, we show that the problem of inserting edges into a simple drawing is fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by the number of edges to insert and an upper bound on newly created crossings. Using the same proof techniques, we are also able to answer several closely related variants of this problem, among others the extension problem for k-plane drawings. Moreover, using a different approach, we provide a single-exponential fixed-parameter algorithm for the case in which we are only trying to insert a single edge into the drawing.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Parameterized complexity and exact algorithms
  • Theory of computation → Computational geometry
  • Simple drawings
  • Extension problems
  • Crossing minimization
  • FPT-algorithms


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