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# High-Girth Near-Ramanujan Graphs with Lossy Vertex Expansion

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LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.96.pdf
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## Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Shirshendu Ganguly and Nikhil Srivastava for their highly valuable insights, intuition, and comments. We would also like to thank Amitay Kamber for helpful comments on the initial version of the preprint.

## Cite As

Theo McKenzie and Sidhanth Mohanty. High-Girth Near-Ramanujan Graphs with Lossy Vertex Expansion. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 96:1-96:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.96

## Abstract

Kahale proved that linear sized sets in d-regular Ramanujan graphs have vertex expansion at least d/2 and complemented this with construction of near-Ramanujan graphs with vertex expansion no better than d/2. However, the construction of Kahale encounters highly local obstructions to better vertex expansion. In particular, the poorly expanding sets are associated with short cycles in the graph. Thus, it is natural to ask whether the vertex expansion of high-girth Ramanujan graphs breaks past the d/2 bound. Our results are two-fold: 1) For every d = p+1 for prime p ≥ 3 and infinitely many n, we exhibit an n-vertex d-regular graph with girth Ω(log_{d-1} n) and vertex expansion of sublinear sized sets bounded by (d+1)/2 whose nontrivial eigenvalues are bounded in magnitude by 2√{d-1}+O(1/(log_{d-1} n)). 2) In any Ramanujan graph with girth Clog_{d-1} n, all sets of size bounded by n^{0.99C/4} have near-lossless vertex expansion (1-o_d(1))d. The tools in analyzing our construction include the nonbacktracking operator of an infinite graph, the Ihara-Bass formula, a trace moment method inspired by Bordenave’s proof of Friedman’s theorem [Bordenave, 2019], and a method of Kahale [Kahale, 1995] to study dispersion of eigenvalues of perturbed graphs.

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Mathematics of computing → Spectra of graphs
• Theory of computation → Expander graphs and randomness extractors
##### Keywords
• expander graphs
• Ramanujan graphs
• vertex expansion
• girth

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