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# Minimum+1 (s,t)-cuts and Dual Edge Sensitivity Oracle

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## Cite As

Surender Baswana, Koustav Bhanja, and Abhyuday Pandey. Minimum+1 (s,t)-cuts and Dual Edge Sensitivity Oracle. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 15:1-15:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.15

## Abstract

Let G be a directed multi-graph on n vertices and m edges with a designated source vertex s and a designated sink vertex t. We study the (s,t)-cuts of capacity minimum+1 and as an important application of them, we give a solution to the dual edge sensitivity for (s,t)-mincuts - reporting the (s,t)-mincut upon failure or addition of any pair of edges. Picard and Queyranne [Mathematical Programming Studies, 13(1):8-16, 1980] showed that there exists a directed acyclic graph (DAG) that compactly stores all minimum (s,t)-cuts of G. This structure also acts as an oracle for the single edge sensitivity of minimum (s,t)-cut. Dinitz and Nutov [STOC, pages 509-518, 1995] showed that there exists an 𝒪(n) size 2-level cactus model that stores all global cuts of capacity minimum+1. However, for minimum+1 (s,t)-cuts, no such compact structures exist till date. We present the following structural and algorithmic results on minimum+1 (s,t)-cuts. 1) There exists a pair of DAGs of size O(m) that compactly store all minimum+1 (s,t)-cuts of G. Each minimum+1 (s,t)-cut appears as a (s,t)-cut in one of the 2 DAGs and is 3-transversal - it intersects any path in the DAG at most thrice. 2) There exists an O(n²) size data structure that, given a pair of vertices {u,v} which are not separated by an (s,t)-mincut, can determine in 𝒪(1) time if there exists a minimum+1 (s,t)-cut, say (A,B), such that {s,u} ∈ A and {v,t} ∈ B; the corresponding cut can be reported in 𝒪(|B|) time. 3) There exists an O(n²) size data structure that solves the dual edge sensitivity problem for (s,t)-mincuts. It takes 𝒪(1) time to report the value of a resulting (s,t)-mincut (A,B) and 𝒪(|B|) time to report the cut. 4) For the data structure problems addressed in (2) and (3) above, we also provide a matching conditional lower bound. We establish a close relationship among three seemingly unrelated problems – all-pairs directed reachability problem, the dual edge sensitivity problem for (s,t)-mincuts, and 2× 2 maximum flow. Assuming the directed reachability hypothesis, this leads to Ω(n²) lower bounds on the space for the latter two problems.

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Theory of computation → Dynamic graph algorithms
• Theory of computation → Network flows
##### Keywords
• mincut
• maxflow
• fault tolerant

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## References

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