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# Separability in Büchi VASS and Singly Non-Linear Systems of Inequalities

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## Cite As

Pascal Baumann, Eren Keskin, Roland Meyer, and Georg Zetzsche. Separability in Büchi VASS and Singly Non-Linear Systems of Inequalities. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 126:1-126:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.126

## Abstract

The ω-regular separability problem for Büchi VASS coverability languages has recently been shown to be decidable, but with an EXPSPACE lower and a non-primitive recursive upper bound - the exact complexity remained open. We close this gap and show that the problem is EXPSPACE-complete. A careful analysis of our complexity bounds additionally yields a PSPACE procedure in the case of fixed dimension ≥ 1, which matches a pre-established lower bound of PSPACE for one dimensional Büchi VASS. Our algorithm is a non-deterministic search for a witness whose size, as we show, can be suitably bounded. Part of the procedure is to decide the existence of runs in VASS that satisfy certain non-linear properties. Therefore, a key technical ingredient is to analyze a class of systems of inequalities where one variable may occur in non-linear (polynomial) expressions. These so-called singly non-linear systems (SNLS) take the form A(x)⋅ y ≥ b(x), where A(x) and b(x) are a matrix resp. a vector whose entries are polynomials in x, and y ranges over vectors in the rationals. Our main contribution on SNLS is an exponential upper bound on the size of rational solutions to singly non-linear systems. The proof consists of three steps. First, we give a tailor-made quantifier elimination to characterize all real solutions to x. Second, using the root separation theorem about the distance of real roots of polynomials, we show that if a rational solution exists, then there is one with at most polynomially many bits. Third, we insert the solution for x into the SNLS, making it linear and allowing us to invoke standard solution bounds from convex geometry. Finally, we combine the results about SNLS with several techniques from the area of VASS to devise an EXPSPACE decision procedure for ω-regular separability of Büchi VASS.

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Theory of computation → Logic
• Theory of computation → Formal languages and automata theory
##### Keywords
• Vector addition systems
• infinite words
• separability
• inequalities
• quantifier elimination
• rational
• polynomials

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## References

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