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# Recognizing Proper Tree-Graphs

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## Acknowledgements

We thank Peter Zeman for initial discussions on this work, particularly relating to the NP-completeness of proper H-graph recognition. We also thank an anonymous reviewer to point to a mistake in an earlier version.

## Cite As

Steven Chaplick, Petr A. Golovach, Tim A. Hartmann, and Dušan Knop. Recognizing Proper Tree-Graphs. In 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 180, pp. 8:1-8:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.8

## Abstract

We investigate the parameterized complexity of the recognition problem for the proper H-graphs. The H-graphs are the intersection graphs of connected subgraphs of a subdivision of a multigraph H, and the properness means that the containment relationship between the representations of the vertices is forbidden. The class of H-graphs was introduced as a natural (parameterized) generalization of interval and circular-arc graphs by Biró, Hujter, and Tuza in 1992, and the proper H-graphs were introduced by Chaplick et al. in WADS 2019 as a generalization of proper interval and circular-arc graphs. For these graph classes, H may be seen as a structural parameter reflecting the distance of a graph to a (proper) interval graph, and as such gained attention as a structural parameter in the design of efficient algorithms. We show the following results. - For a tree T with t nodes, it can be decided in 2^{𝒪(t² log t)} ⋅ n³ time, whether an n-vertex graph G is a proper T-graph. For yes-instances, our algorithm outputs a proper T-representation. This proves that the recognition problem for proper H-graphs, where H required to be a tree, is fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by the size of T. Previously only NP-completeness was known. - Contrasting to the first result, we prove that if H is not constrained to be a tree, then the recognition problem becomes much harder. Namely, we show that there is a multigraph H with 4 vertices and 5 edges such that it is NP-complete to decide whether G is a proper H-graph.

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Mathematics of computing → Graph theory
• Theory of computation → Fixed parameter tractability
##### Keywords
• intersection graphs
• H-graphs
• recognition
• fixed-parameter tractability

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