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Universally Composable Almost-Everywhere Secure Computation

Authors Nishanth Chandran, Pouyan Forghani, Juan Garay, Rafail Ostrovsky, Rutvik Patel, Vassilis Zikas



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Author Details

Nishanth Chandran
  • Microsoft Research, Bangalore, India
Pouyan Forghani
  • Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
Juan Garay
  • Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
Rafail Ostrovsky
  • University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Rutvik Patel
  • Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
Vassilis Zikas
  • Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Ran Canetti for useful discussions during preliminary stages of this work.

Cite AsGet BibTex

Nishanth Chandran, Pouyan Forghani, Juan Garay, Rafail Ostrovsky, Rutvik Patel, and Vassilis Zikas. Universally Composable Almost-Everywhere Secure Computation. In 3rd Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 230, pp. 14:1-14:25, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2022.14

Abstract

Most existing work on secure multi-party computation (MPC) ignores a key idiosyncrasy of modern communication networks, that there are a limited number of communication paths between any two nodes, many of which might even be corrupted. The problem becomes particularly acute in the information-theoretic setting, where the lack of trusted setups (and the cryptographic primitives they enable) makes communication over sparse networks more challenging. The work by Garay and Ostrovsky [EUROCRYPT'08] on almost-everywhere MPC (AE-MPC), introduced "best-possible security" properties for MPC over such incomplete networks, where necessarily some of the honest parties may be excluded from the computation. In this work, we provide a universally composable definition of almost-everywhere security, which allows us to automatically and accurately capture the guarantees of AE-MPC (as well as AE-communication, the analogous "best-possible security" version of secure communication) in the Universal Composability (UC) framework of Canetti. Our results offer the first simulation-based treatment of this important but under-investigated problem, along with the first simulation-based proof of AE-MPC. To achieve that goal, we state and prove a general composition theorem, which makes precise the level or "quality" of AE-security that is obtained when a protocol’s hybrids are replaced with almost-everywhere components.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Cryptographic protocols
  • Security and privacy → Information-theoretic techniques
  • Security and privacy → Formal security models
Keywords
  • Secure multi-party computation
  • universal composability
  • almost-everywhere secure computation
  • sparse graphs
  • secure message transmission

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