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Quantum Meets the Minimum Circuit Size Problem

Authors Nai-Hui Chia, Chi-Ning Chou, Jiayu Zhang, Ruizhe Zhang



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Author Details

Nai-Hui Chia
  • Luddy School of Informatics, Computing, and Engineering, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
Chi-Ning Chou
  • School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA
Jiayu Zhang
  • Department of Computer Science, Boston University, MA, USA
  • Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute and Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
Ruizhe Zhang
  • Department of Computer Science, The University of Texas at Austin, TX, USA

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Scott Aaronson and Boaz Barak for helpful discussions and valuable comments on our manuscript. We would like to thank Lijie Chen, Kai-Min Chung, Matthew Coudron, Yanyi Liu, and Fang Song for useful discussions.

Cite AsGet BibTex

Nai-Hui Chia, Chi-Ning Chou, Jiayu Zhang, and Ruizhe Zhang. Quantum Meets the Minimum Circuit Size Problem. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 47:1-47:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.47

Abstract

In this work, we initiate the study of the Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) in the quantum setting. MCSP is a problem to compute the circuit complexity of Boolean functions. It is a fascinating problem in complexity theory - its hardness is mysterious, and a better understanding of its hardness can have surprising implications to many fields in computer science. We first define and investigate the basic complexity-theoretic properties of minimum quantum circuit size problems for three natural objects: Boolean functions, unitaries, and quantum states. We show that these problems are not trivially in NP but in QCMA (or have QCMA protocols). Next, we explore the relations between the three quantum MCSPs and their variants. We discover that some reductions that are not known for classical MCSP exist for quantum MCSPs for unitaries and states, e.g., search-to-decision reductions and self-reductions. Finally, we systematically generalize results known for classical MCSP to the quantum setting (including quantum cryptography, quantum learning theory, quantum circuit lower bounds, and quantum fine-grained complexity) and also find new connections to tomography and quantum gravity. Due to the fundamental differences between classical and quantum circuits, most of our results require extra care and reveal properties and phenomena unique to the quantum setting. Our findings could be of interest for future studies, and we post several open problems for further exploration along this direction.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Quantum complexity theory
Keywords
  • Quantum Computation
  • Quantum Complexity
  • Minimum Circuit Size Problem

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