A Proof-Producing Compiler for Blockchain Applications

Authors Jeremy Avigad , Lior Goldberg, David Levit, Yoav Seginer, Alon Titelman

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Author Details

Jeremy Avigad
  • Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Lior Goldberg
  • StarkWare Industries Ltd., Netanya, Israel
David Levit
  • StarkWare Industries Ltd., Netanya, Israel
Yoav Seginer
  • Amsterdam, Netherlands
Alon Titelman
  • StarkWare Industries Ltd., Netanya, Israel


We are grateful to the Lean developers and the Lean community for providing infrastructure for this project, and to three anonymous reviewers for numerous corrections and improvements.

Cite AsGet BibTex

Jeremy Avigad, Lior Goldberg, David Levit, Yoav Seginer, and Alon Titelman. A Proof-Producing Compiler for Blockchain Applications. In 14th International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 268, pp. 7:1-7:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


Cairo is a programming language for running decentralized applications (dapps) at scale. Programs written in the Cairo language are compiled to machine code for the Cairo CPU architecture, and cryptographic protocols are used to verify the results of the execution traces efficiently on blockchain. We explain how we have extended the Cairo compiler with tooling that enables users to prove, in the Lean 3 proof assistant, that compiled code satisfies high-level functional specifications. We demonstrate the success of our approach by verifying primitives for computations with an elliptic curve over a large finite field, as well as their use in the validation of cryptographic signatures.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • General and reference → Verification
  • Theory of computation → Logic and verification
  • Software and its engineering → Semantics
  • formal verification
  • smart contracts
  • interactive proof systems


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