Team Semantics for the Specification and Verification of Hyperproperties

Authors Andreas Krebs, Arne Meier , Jonni Virtema , Martin Zimmermann

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Andreas Krebs
  • Universität Tübingen, Wilhelm-Schickard-Institut für Informatik, Tübingen, Germany
Arne Meier
  • Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Theoretische Informatik, Hannover, Germany
Jonni Virtema
  • Hasselt University, Databases and Theoretical Computer Science Group, Diepenbeek, Belgium
Martin Zimmermann
  • Saarland University, Reactive Systems Group, Saarbrücken, Germany

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Andreas Krebs, Arne Meier, Jonni Virtema, and Martin Zimmermann. Team Semantics for the Specification and Verification of Hyperproperties. In 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 117, pp. 10:1-10:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


We develop team semantics for Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) to express hyperproperties, which have recently been identified as a key concept in the verification of information flow properties. Conceptually, we consider an asynchronous and a synchronous variant of team semantics. We study basic properties of this new logic and classify the computational complexity of its satisfiability, path, and model checking problem. Further, we examine how extensions of these basic logics react on adding other atomic operators. Finally, we compare its expressivity to the one of HyperLTL, another recently introduced logic for hyperproperties. Our results show that LTL under team semantics is a viable alternative to HyperLTL, which complements the expressivity of HyperLTL and has partially better algorithmic properties.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Complexity theory and logic
  • LTL
  • Hyperproperties
  • Team Semantics
  • Model Checking
  • Satisfiability


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