Depth Two Majority Circuits for Majority and List Expanders

Author Kazuyuki Amano

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Kazuyuki Amano
  • Department of Computer Science, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515, Japan

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Kazuyuki Amano. Depth Two Majority Circuits for Majority and List Expanders. In 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 117, pp. 81:1-81:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


Let MAJ_n denote the Boolean majority function of n input variables. In this paper, we study the construction of depth two circuits computing MAJ_n where each gate in a circuit computes MAJ_m for m < n. We first give an explicit construction of depth two MAJ_{floor[n/2]+2} o MAJ_{<= n-2} circuits computing MAJ_n for every n >= 7 such that n congruent 3 (mod 4) where MAJ_m and MAJ_{<= m} denote the majority gates that take m and at most m distinct inputs, respectively. A graph theoretic argument developed by Kulikov and Podolskii (STACS '17, Article No. 49) shows that there is no MAJ_{<= n-2} o MAJ_{n-2} circuit computing MAJ_n. Hence, our construction reveals that the use of a smaller fan-in gates at the bottom level is essential for the existence of such a circuit. Some computational results are also provided. We then show that the construction of depth two MAJ_m o MAJ_m circuits computing MAJ_n for m<n can be translated into the construction of a newly introduced version of bipartite expander graphs which we call a list expander. Intuitively, a list expander is a c-leftregular bipartite graph such that for a given d < c, every d-leftregular subgraph of the original graph has a certain expansion property. We formalize this connection and verify that, with high probability, a random bipartite graph is a list expander of certain parameters. However, the parameters obtained are not sufficient to give us a MAJ_{n-c} o MAJ_{n-c} circuit computing MAJ_n for a large constant c.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Circuit complexity
  • Boolean function
  • majority function
  • constant depth circuit
  • expander graph


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