Quantum Lower and Upper Bounds for 2D-Grid and Dyck Language

Authors Andris Ambainis, Kaspars Balodis, Jānis Iraids, Kamil Khadiev, Vladislavs Kļevickis, Krišjānis Prūsis, Yixin Shen, Juris Smotrovs, Jevgēnijs Vihrovs



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Author Details

Andris Ambainis
  • Center for Quantum Computer Science, Faculty of Computing, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia
Kaspars Balodis
  • Center for Quantum Computer Science, Faculty of Computing, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia
Jānis Iraids
  • Center for Quantum Computer Science, Faculty of Computing, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia
Kamil Khadiev
  • Kazan Federal University, Russia
Vladislavs Kļevickis
  • Center for Quantum Computer Science, Faculty of Computing, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia
Krišjānis Prūsis
  • Center for Quantum Computer Science, Faculty of Computing, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia
Yixin Shen
  • Université de Paris, CNRS, IRIF, F-75006 Paris, France
Juris Smotrovs
  • Center for Quantum Computer Science, Faculty of Computing, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia
Jevgēnijs Vihrovs
  • Center for Quantum Computer Science, Faculty of Computing, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions.

Cite AsGet BibTex

Andris Ambainis, Kaspars Balodis, Jānis Iraids, Kamil Khadiev, Vladislavs Kļevickis, Krišjānis Prūsis, Yixin Shen, Juris Smotrovs, and Jevgēnijs Vihrovs. Quantum Lower and Upper Bounds for 2D-Grid and Dyck Language. In 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 170, pp. 8:1-8:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.8

Abstract

We study the quantum query complexity of two problems. First, we consider the problem of determining if a sequence of parentheses is a properly balanced one (a Dyck word), with a depth of at most k. We call this the Dyck_{k,n} problem. We prove a lower bound of Ω(c^k √n), showing that the complexity of this problem increases exponentially in k. Here n is the length of the word. When k is a constant, this is interesting as a representative example of star-free languages for which a surprising Õ(√n) query quantum algorithm was recently constructed by Aaronson et al. [Scott Aaronson et al., 2018]. Their proof does not give rise to a general algorithm. When k is not a constant, Dyck_{k,n} is not context-free. We give an algorithm with O(√n(log n)^{0.5k}) quantum queries for Dyck_{k,n} for all k. This is better than the trival upper bound n for k = o({log(n)}/{log log n}). Second, we consider connectivity problems on grid graphs in 2 dimensions, if some of the edges of the grid may be missing. By embedding the "balanced parentheses" problem into the grid, we show a lower bound of Ω(n^{1.5-ε}) for the directed 2D grid and Ω(n^{2-ε}) for the undirected 2D grid. The directed problem is interesting as a black-box model for a class of classical dynamic programming strategies including the one that is usually used for the well-known edit distance problem. We also show a generalization of this result to more than 2 dimensions.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Quantum query complexity
Keywords
  • Quantum query complexity
  • Quantum algorithms
  • Dyck language
  • Grid path

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