Gaps, Ambiguity, and Establishing Complexity-Class Containments via Iterative Constant-Setting

Authors Lane A. Hemaspaandra , Mandar Juvekar , Arian Nadjimzadah , Patrick A. Phillips

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Author Details

Lane A. Hemaspaandra
  • Department of Computer Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
Mandar Juvekar
  • Department of Computer Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
Arian Nadjimzadah
  • Department of Computer Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
Patrick A. Phillips
  • Riverside Research, Arlington, VA, USA


We thank B. Carleton, H. Welles, and the anonymous referees.

Cite AsGet BibTex

Lane A. Hemaspaandra, Mandar Juvekar, Arian Nadjimzadah, and Patrick A. Phillips. Gaps, Ambiguity, and Establishing Complexity-Class Containments via Iterative Constant-Setting. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 57:1-57:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Cai and Hemachandra used iterative constant-setting to prove that Few ⊆ ⊕ P (and thus that FewP ⊆ ⊕ P). In this paper, we note that there is a tension between the nondeterministic ambiguity of the class one is seeking to capture, and the density (or, to be more precise, the needed "nongappy"-ness) of the easy-to-find "targets" used in iterative constant-setting. In particular, we show that even less restrictive gap-size upper bounds regarding the targets allow one to capture ambiguity-limited classes. Through a flexible, metatheorem-based approach, we do so for a wide range of classes including the logarithmic-ambiguity version of Valiant’s unambiguous nondeterminism class UP. Our work lowers the bar for what advances regarding the existence of infinite, P-printable sets of primes would suffice to show that restricted counting classes based on the primes have the power to accept superconstant-ambiguity analogues of UP. As an application of our work, we prove that the Lenstra-Pomerance-Wagstaff Conjecture implies that all O(log log n)-ambiguity NP sets are in the restricted counting class RC_PRIMES.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Complexity classes
  • structural complexity theory
  • computational complexity theory
  • ambiguity-limited NP
  • counting classes
  • P-printable sets


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