A Holistic Approach for Trustworthy Distributed Systems with WebAssembly and TEEs

Authors Jämes Ménétrey , Aeneas Grüter , Peterson Yuhala , Julius Oeftiger , Pascal Felber , Marcelo Pasin , Valerio Schiavoni

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Author Details

Jämes Ménétrey
  • University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Aeneas Grüter
  • University of Bern, Switzerland
Peterson Yuhala
  • University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Julius Oeftiger
  • University of Bern, Switzerland
Pascal Felber
  • University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Marcelo Pasin
  • University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Valerio Schiavoni
  • University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland

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Jämes Ménétrey, Aeneas Grüter, Peterson Yuhala, Julius Oeftiger, Pascal Felber, Marcelo Pasin, and Valerio Schiavoni. A Holistic Approach for Trustworthy Distributed Systems with WebAssembly and TEEs. In 27th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 286, pp. 23:1-23:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


Publish/subscribe systems play a key role in enabling communication between numerous devices in distributed and large-scale architectures. While widely adopted, securing such systems often trades portability for additional integrity and attestation guarantees. Trusted Execution Environments (TEEs) offer a potential solution with enclaves to enhance security and trust. However, application development for TEEs is complex, and many existing solutions are tied to specific TEE architectures, limiting adaptability. Current communication protocols also inadequately manage attestation proofs or expose essential attestation information. This paper introduces a novel approach using WebAssembly to address these issues, a key enabling technology nowadays capturing academia and industry attention. We present the design of a portable and fully attested publish/subscribe middleware system as a holistic approach for trustworthy and distributed communication between various systems. Based on this proposal, we have implemented and evaluated in-depth a fully-fledged publish/subscribe broker running within Intel SGX, compiled in WebAssembly, and built on top of industry-battled frameworks and standards, i.e., MQTT and TLS protocols. Our extended TLS protocol preserves the privacy of attestation information, among other benefits. Our experimental results showcase most overheads, revealing a 1.55× decrease in message throughput when using a trusted broker. We open-source the contributions of this work to the research community to facilitate experimental reproducibility.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Security and privacy
  • Security and privacy → Distributed systems security
  • Security and privacy → Trusted computing
  • Computer systems organization → Dependable and fault-tolerant systems and networks
  • Publish/Subscribe
  • WebAssembly
  • Attestation
  • TLS
  • Trusted Execution Environment
  • Cloud-Edge Continuum


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