Document Open Access Logo

Intermittent Computing: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors Brandon Lucia, Vignesh Balaji, Alexei Colin, Kiwan Maeng, Emily Ruppel



PDF
Thumbnail PDF

File

LIPIcs.SNAPL.2017.8.pdf
  • Filesize: 1.99 MB
  • 14 pages

Document Identifiers

Author Details

Brandon Lucia
Vignesh Balaji
Alexei Colin
Kiwan Maeng
Emily Ruppel

Cite AsGet BibTex

Brandon Lucia, Vignesh Balaji, Alexei Colin, Kiwan Maeng, and Emily Ruppel. Intermittent Computing: Challenges and Opportunities. In 2nd Summit on Advances in Programming Languages (SNAPL 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 71, pp. 8:1-8:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.SNAPL.2017.8

Abstract

The maturation of energy-harvesting technology and ultra-low-power computer systems has led to the advent of intermittently-powered, batteryless devices that operate entirely using energy extracted from their environment. Intermittently operating devices present a rich vein of programming languages research challenges and the purpose of this paper is to illustrate these challenges to the PL research community. To provide depth, this paper includes a survey of the hardware and software design space of intermittent computing platforms. On the foundation of these research challenges and the state of the art in intermittent hardware and software, this paper describes several future PL research directions, emphasizing a connection between intermittence, distributed computing, energy-aware programming and compilation, and approximate computing. We illustrate these connections with a discussion of our ongoing work on programming for intermittence, and on building and simulating intermittent distributed systems.
Keywords
  • Intermittent computing
  • Energy-harvesting devices

Metrics

  • Access Statistics
  • Total Accesses (updated on a weekly basis)
    0
    PDF Downloads

References

  1. Henko Aantjes, Amjad Y. Majid, Przemysław Pawełczak, Jethro Tan, Aaron Parks, and Joshua R. Smith. Fast Downstream to Many (Computational) RFIDs. In IEEE INFOCOM 2017 - The 36th Annual IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, May 2017. Google Scholar
  2. Justin A. Atchison and Mason Peck. A millimeter-scale lorentz propelled spacecraft. In AIAA Guidance, Navigation and Control Conference, August 2007. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2007-6847.
  3. Domenico Balsama, Alex Weddell, Geoff Merrettt, Bashir Al-Hashimi, Davide Brunelli, and Luca Benini. Hibernus: Sustaining computation during intermittent supply for energy-harvesting systems. IEEE Embedded System Letters, 7(1):15-18, March 2015. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LES.2014.2371494.
  4. D. Balsamo, A. S. Weddell, A. Das, A. R. Arreola, D. Brunelli, B. M. Al-Hashimi, G. V. Merrett, and L. Benini. Hibernus++: A self-calibrating and adaptive system for transiently-powered embedded devices. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 35(12):1968-1980, 2016. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCAD.2016.2547919.
  5. Dinesh Bharadia, Kiran Raj Joshi, Manikanta Kotaru, and Sachin Katti. BackFi: High throughput wifi backscatter. In SIGCOMM'15, pages 283-296, October 2015. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2785956.2787490.
  6. Michael Buettner, Ben Greenstein, and David Wetherall. Dewdrop: An energy-aware task scheduler for computational RFID. In USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI), March 2011. Google Scholar
  7. Joel Coburn, Adrian M. Caulfield, Ameen Akel, Laura M. Grupp, Rajesh K. Gupta, Ranjit Jhala, and Steven Swanson. NV-Heaps: making persistent objects fast and safe with next-generation, non-volatile memories. In 16th ACM Int'l Conf. on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS), pages 105-118, March 2015. Google Scholar
  8. Alexei Colin, Graham Harvey, Brandon Lucia, and Alanson P. Sample. An energy-interference-free hardware-software debugger for intermittent energy-harvesting systems. In 21st ACM Intl. Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS), pages 577-589, April 2016. Google Scholar
  9. Alexei Colin and Brandon Lucia. Chain: tasks and channels for reliable intermittent programs. In ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages and Applications (OOPSLA), pages 514-530, October 2016. Google Scholar
  10. Alexei Colin, Preeti Murthy, and Brandon Lucia. Cleancut: Static task boundary placement for intermittent programs. In Workshop on Hilariously Low-Power Computing, April 2016. Google Scholar
  11. Natacha Crooks, Youer Pu, Nancy Estrada, Trinabh Gupta, Lorenzo Alvisi, and Allen Clement. TARDiS: A branch-and-merge approach to weak consistency. In International Conference on Management of Data, June 2016. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2882903.2882951.
  12. G. de Meulenaer, F. Gosset, F. X. Standaert, and O. Pereira. On the energy cost of communication and cryptography in wireless sensor networks. In 2008 IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, pages 580-585, Oct 2008. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WiMob.2008.16.
  13. Josiah Hester, Timothy Scott, and Jacob Sorber. Ekho: realistic and repeatable experimentation for tiny energy-harvesting sensors. In 12th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys'14), pages 330-331, November 2014. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2668332.2668382.
  14. Josiah Hester, Lanny Sitanayah, and Jacob Sorber. Demo: A hardware platform for separating energy concerns in tiny, intermittently-powered sensors. In 13th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys'15), pages 447-448, November 2015. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2809695.2817847.
  15. Josiah Hester, Kevin Storer, Jacob Sorber, and Lanny Sitanayah. Towards a language and runtime for intermittently powered devices. In Workshop on Hilariously Low-Power Computing, April 2016. Google Scholar
  16. International Telecommunication Union. Overview of the internet of things. http://handle.itu.int/11.1002/1000/11559, June 2012.
  17. H. Jayakumar, A. Raha, and V. Raghunathan. QuickRecall: A low overhead HW/SW approach for enabling computations across power cycles in transiently powered computers. In Int'l Conf. on VLSI Design and Int'l Conf. on Embedded Systems, January 2014. URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=6733152.
  18. Mustafa Karagozler, Ivan Poupyrev, Gary Fedder, and Yuri Suzuki. Paper Generators: Harvesting energy from touching rubbing and sliding. In ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), October 2013. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2501988.2502054.
  19. Yoonmyung Lee, Gyouho Kim, Suyoung Bang, Yejoong Kim, Inhee Lee, Prabal Dutta, Dennis Sylvester, and David Blaauw. A modular 1mm3 die-stacked sensing platform with optical communications and multi-modal energy harvesting. In IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), pages 402-403, February 2012. Google Scholar
  20. Ting Liu, Christopher Sadler, Pei Zhang, and Margaret Martonosi. ZebraNet. In 2nd Intl. Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications and Services (MobiSys'04), pages 256-269, June 2004. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/990064.990095.
  21. Ting Liu, Christopher Sadler, Pei Zhang, and Margaret Martonosi. An energy-efficient nonvolatile microprocessor considering software-hardware interaction for energy harvesting applications. In Intl. Symposium on VLSI Design, Automation and Test (VLSI-DAT), April 2016. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VLSI-DAT.2016.7482577.
  22. Vincent Liu, Aaron Parks, Vamsi Talla, Shyamnath Gollakota, David Wetherall, and Joshua Smith. Ambient backscatter: wireless communication out of thin air. In SIGCOMM'13, pages 39-50, October 2013. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2534169.2486015.
  23. Brandon Lucia and Benjamin Ransford. A simpler, safer programming and execution model for intermittent systems. In ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI), pages 575-585, June 2015. Google Scholar
  24. A. Mirhoseini, E. M. Songhori, and F. Koushanfar. Idetic: A high-level synthesis approach for enabling long computations on transiently-powered ASICs. In IEEE Pervasive Computing and Communication Conference (PerCom), March 2013. URL: http://aceslab.org/sites/default/files/Idetic.pdf.
  25. Saman Naderiparizi, Zerina Kapetanovic, and Joshua R. Smith. Wispcam: An rf-powered smart camera for machine vision applications. In Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Energy Harvesting and Energy-Neutral Sensing Systems, ENSsys'16, pages 19-22, 2016. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2996884.2996888.
  26. Joseph Paradiso. Systems for human-powered mobile computing. In DAC, July 2006. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1146909.1147074.
  27. Joseph Paradiso and Mark Feldmeier. A compact, wireless, self-powered pushbutton controller. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp'01), pages 299-304, September 2001. Google Scholar
  28. Gyuhae Park, Tajana Rosing, Michael Todd, Charles Farrar, and William Hodgkiss. Energy harvesting for structural health monitoring sensor networks. ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 14(1):64-79, March 2008. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1076-0342(2008)14:1(64)#sthash.ULLx9D2h.dpuf.
  29. Steven Pelley, Peter M. Chen, and Thomas F. Wenisch. Memory persistency. In ISCA, June 2014. Google Scholar
  30. Powercast Co. Development Kits - Wireless Power Solutions. http://www.powercastco.com/products/development-kits/. Visited July 30, 2014.
  31. Proteus Digital Health. Proteus Discover. http://proteus.com, 2016.
  32. Nithya Ramanathan, Kevin Chang, Rahul Kapur, Lewis Girod, Eddie Kohler, and Deborah Estrin. Sympathy for the sensor network debugger. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, SenSys'05, pages 255-267, New York, NY, USA, 2005. ACM. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1098918.1098946.
  33. Benjamin Ransford, Jacob Sorber, and Kevin Fu. Mementos: System support for long-running computation on RFID-scale devices. In ASPLOS, March 2011. URL: https://spqr.eecs.umich.edu/papers/ransford-mementos-asplos11.pdf.
  34. Alanson P. Sample, Daniel J. Yeager, Pauline S. Powledge, Alexander V. Mamishev, and Joshua R. Smith. Design of an RFID-based battery-free programmable sensing platform. IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, 57(11):2608-2615, November 2008. Google Scholar
  35. Adrian Sampson, Werner Dietl, Emily Fortuna, Danushen Gnanapragasam, Luis Ceze, and Dan Grossman. Enerj: Approximate data types for safe and general low-power computation. In Proceedings of the 32Nd ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation, PLDI'11, 2011. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993498.1993518.
  36. Jacob Sorber, Alexander Kostadinov, Matthew Garber, Matthew Brennan, Mark D. Corner, and Emery D. Berger. Eon: A language and runtime system for perpetual systems. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, SenSys'07, pages 161-174, 2007. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1322263.1322279.
  37. Tolga Soyata, lucian Copeland, and Wendi Heinzelman. Rf energy harvesting for embedded systems: A survey of tradeoffs and methodology. IEEE Circuits and Systems Magazine, 16(1):22-57, February 2015. URL: http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MCAS.2015.2510198.
  38. Ion Stoica, Robert Morris, David Karger, M. Frans Kaashoek, and Hari Balakrishnan. Chord: A scalable peer-to-peer lookup service for internet applications. In Proceedings of the 2001 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, SIGCOMM'01, pages 149-160, 2001. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/383059.383071.
  39. D. Takashima, S. Shuto, I. Kunishima, H. Takenaka, Y. Oowaki, and S. Tanaka. A sub-40 ns random-access chain fram architecture with a 768 cell-plate-line drive. In IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), pages 102-103, February 1999. URL: http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi./org/10.1109/ISSCC.1999.759147.
  40. J. Tan, P. Pawełczak, A. Parks, and J. R. Smith. Wisent: Robust downstream communication and storage for computational rfids. In IEEE INFOCOM 2016 - 35th Annual IEEE Int'l Conf. on Computer Communications, pages 1-9, April 2016. Google Scholar
  41. Texas Instruments Inc. Intelligent system state restoration after power failure with compute through power loss utility. http://www.ti.com/lit/ug/tidu885/tidu885.pdf, April 2015.
  42. TI Inc. Overview for MSP430FRxx FRAM. http://ti.com/wolverine, 2014. Visited July 28, 2014.
  43. Joel Van Der Woude and Mathew Hicks. Intermittent computation without hardware support or programmer intervention. In USENIX Conference on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI), pages 17-32, November 2016. Google Scholar
  44. Nicolas Villar and Steve Hodges. The Peppermill: A human-powered user interface device. In Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction (TEI), January 2010. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1709886.1709893.
  45. WISP. http://wisp5.wikispaces.com/, 2016.
  46. Zac Manchester. KickSat: a tiny open-sourced spacecraft. http://kicksat.github.io, 2016.
  47. Jishen Zhao, Sheng Li, Doe Hyun Yoon, Yuan Xie, and Norman P. Jouppi. Kiln: Closing the performance gap between systems with and without persistence support. In MICRO, December 2013. URL: http://www.cse.psu.edu/~juz138/files/150-zhao.pdf.
Questions / Remarks / Feedback
X

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing


Thanks for your feedback!

Feedback submitted

Could not send message

Please try again later or send an E-mail