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Algorithms for Designing Pop-Up Cards

Authors Zachary Abel, Erik D. Demaine, Martin L. Demaine, Sarah Eisenstat, Anna Lubiw, André Schulz, Diane L. Souvaine, Giovanni Viglietta, Andrew Winslow



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LIPIcs.STACS.2013.269.pdf
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Zachary Abel
Erik D. Demaine
Martin L. Demaine
Sarah Eisenstat
Anna Lubiw
André Schulz
Diane L. Souvaine
Giovanni Viglietta
Andrew Winslow

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Zachary Abel, Erik D. Demaine, Martin L. Demaine, Sarah Eisenstat, Anna Lubiw, André Schulz, Diane L. Souvaine, Giovanni Viglietta, and Andrew Winslow. Algorithms for Designing Pop-Up Cards. In 30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 20, pp. 269-280, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2013)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2013.269

Abstract

We prove that every simple polygon can be made as a (2D) pop-up card/book that opens to any desired angle between 0 and 360°. More precisely, given a simple polygon attached to the two walls of the open pop-up, our polynomial-time algorithm subdivides the polygon into a single-degree-of-freedom linkage structure, such that closing the pop-up flattens the linkage without collision. This result solves an open problem of Hara and Sugihara from 2009. We also show how to obtain a more efficient construction for the special case of orthogonal polygons, and how to make 3D orthogonal polyhedra, from pop-ups that open to 90°, 180°, 270°, or 360°.
Keywords
  • geometric folding
  • linkages
  • universality

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