Dynamic Connectivity in Disk Graphs

Authors Haim Kaplan, Alexander Kauer, Katharina Klost , Kristin Knorr , Wolfgang Mulzer , Liam Roditty, Paul Seiferth

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Author Details

Haim Kaplan
  • School of Computer Science, Tel Aviv University, Israel
Alexander Kauer
  • Institut für Informatik, Freie Universtiät Berlin, Germany
Katharina Klost
  • Institut für Informatik, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
Kristin Knorr
  • Institut für Informatik, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
Wolfgang Mulzer
  • Institut für Informatik, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
Liam Roditty
  • Department of Computer Science, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
Paul Seiferth
  • Institut für Informatik, Freie Universtiät Berlin, Germany

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Haim Kaplan, Alexander Kauer, Katharina Klost, Kristin Knorr, Wolfgang Mulzer, Liam Roditty, and Paul Seiferth. Dynamic Connectivity in Disk Graphs. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 49:1-49:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Let S ⊆ ℝ² be a set of n planar sites, such that each s ∈ S has an associated radius r_s > 0. Let 𝒟(S) be the disk intersection graph for S. It has vertex set S and an edge between two distinct sites s, t ∈ S if and only if the disks with centers s, t and radii r_s, r_t intersect. Our goal is to design data structures that maintain the connectivity structure of 𝒟(S) as sites are inserted and/or deleted. First, we consider unit disk graphs, i.e., r_s = 1, for all s ∈ S. We describe a data structure that has O(log² n) amortized update and O(log n/log log n) amortized query time. Second, we look at disk graphs with bounded radius ratio Ψ, i.e., for all s ∈ S, we have 1 ≤ r_s ≤ Ψ, for a Ψ ≥ 1 known in advance. In the fully dynamic case, we achieve amortized update time O(Ψ λ₆(log n) log⁷ n) and query time O(log n/log log n), where λ_s(n) is the maximum length of a Davenport-Schinzel sequence of order s on n symbols. In the incremental case, where only insertions are allowed, we get logarithmic dependency on Ψ, with O(α(n)) query time and O(logΨ λ₆(log n) log⁷ n) update time. For the decremental setting, where only deletions are allowed, we first develop an efficient disk revealing structure: given two sets R and B of disks, we can delete disks from R, and upon each deletion, we receive a list of all disks in B that no longer intersect the union of R. Using this, we get decremental data structures with amortized query time O(log n/log log n) that support m deletions in O((nlog⁵ n + m log⁷ n) λ₆(log n) + nlog Ψ log⁴n) overall time for bounded radius ratio Ψ and O((nlog⁶ n + m log⁸n) λ₆(log n)) for arbitrary radii.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Computational geometry
  • Theory of computation → Data structures design and analysis
  • Mathematics of computing → Paths and connectivity problems
  • Disk Graphs
  • Connectivity
  • Lower Envelopes


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