A Character Model with Moral Emotions: Preliminary Evaluation

Authors Cristina Battaglino, Rossana Damiano

Thumbnail PDF


  • Filesize: 1.91 MB
  • 18 pages

Document Identifiers

Author Details

Cristina Battaglino
Rossana Damiano

Cite AsGet BibTex

Cristina Battaglino and Rossana Damiano. A Character Model with Moral Emotions: Preliminary Evaluation. In 2014 Workshop on Computational Models of Narrative. Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 41, pp. 24-41, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)


In literary and drama criticism, emotions, and moral emotions in particular, have been pointed out as one of characterizing features of stories. In this paper, we propose to model story characters as value-based emotional agents, who appraise their own and others' actions based on their desires and values, and feel the appropriate moral emotions in response to narrative situations that challenge their goals and values. In order to validate the appropriateness of the agent model for narrative characters, we ran an experiment with human participants aimed at comparing their expectations about characters' emotions with the predictions of the value-based model of emotional agent. The results of the experiment show that the participants' expectations meet the predictions of the model.
  • emotion models
  • virtual characters
  • moral emotions
  • empirical evaluation


  • Access Statistics
  • Total Accesses (updated on a weekly basis)
    PDF Downloads


  1. Ruth Aylett, Joao Dias, and Ana Paiva. An affectively driven planner for synthetic characters. In Icaps, pages 2-10, 2006. Google Scholar
  2. Heather Barber and Daniel Kudenko. Generation of adaptive dilemma-based interactive narratives. Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, IEEE Transactions on, 1(4):309-326, 2009. Google Scholar
  3. Cristina Battaglino and Rossana Damiano. Emotional appraisal of moral dilemma in characters. In ICIDS, pages 150-161, 2012. Google Scholar
  4. Cristina Battaglino, Rossana Damiano, and Leonardo Lesmo. Emotional range in value-sensitive deliberation. In AAMAS, pages 769-776, 2013. Google Scholar
  5. Harold Bloom. Shakespeare : the invention of the human. Riverhead Books, New York, 1998. Google Scholar
  6. Craig Boutilier, Thomas Dean, and Steve Hanks. Decision-theoretic planning: Structural assumptions and computational leverage. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 11:1-94, 1999. Google Scholar
  7. M. E. Bratman. Intention, plans, and practical reason. Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass, 1987. Google Scholar
  8. J. Bruner. The narrative construction of reality. Critical Inquiry, 18(1):1-21, 1991. Google Scholar
  9. Vadim Bulitko, Steve Solomon, Jonathan Gratch, and Michael van Lent. Modeling culturally and emotionally affected behavior. In AIIDE, 2008. Google Scholar
  10. Joseph Campbell. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1949. Google Scholar
  11. Noel Carroll. Art and mood: preliminary notes and conjectures. The monist, 86(4):521-555, 2003. Google Scholar
  12. Cristiano Castelfranchi, Frank Dignum, Catholijn M. Jonker, and Jan Treur. Deliberative normative agents: Principles and architecture. In Nicholas R. Jennings and Yves Lespérance, editors, ATAL, volume 1757 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 364-378. Springer, 1999. Google Scholar
  13. Ilona E. De Hooge, Seger M. Breugelmans, and Marcel Zeelenberg. Not so ugly after all: when shame acts as a commitment device. Journal of personality and social psychology, 95(4):933, 2008. Google Scholar
  14. Celso M. de Melo, Liang Zheng, and Jonathan Gratch. Expression of moral emotions in cooperating agents. In Zsófia Ruttkay, Michael Kipp, Anton Nijholt, and Hannes Högni Vilhjálmsson, editors, IVA, volume 5773 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 301-307. Springer, 2009. Google Scholar
  15. Morteza Dehghani, Emmett Tomai, Kenneth D. Forbus, and Matthew Klenk. An integrated reasoning approach to moral decision-making. In Dieter Fox and Carla P. Gomes, editors, AAAI, pages 1280-1286. AAAI Press, 2008. Google Scholar
  16. Joao Dias, Samuel Mascarenhas, and Ana Paiva. Fatima modular: Towards an agent architecture with a generic appraisal framework. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Standards for Emotion Modeling, 2011. Google Scholar
  17. João Dias and Ana Paiva. Agents with emotional intelligence for storytelling. In Sidney K. D'Mello, Arthur C. Graesser, Björn Schuller, and Jean-Claude Martin, editors, ACII (1), volume 6974 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 77-86. Springer, 2011. Google Scholar
  18. Denis Diderot. Paradoxe sur le comédien. Sautelet, 1830. Google Scholar
  19. L. Egri. The Art of Dramatic Writing. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1946. Google Scholar
  20. Magy Seif El-Nasr, John Yen, and Thomas R. Ioerger. Flame - fuzzy logic adaptive model of emotions. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 3:219-257, September 2000. Google Scholar
  21. Clark D. Elliott. The affective reasoner: a process model of emotions in a multi-agent system. PhD thesis, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA, 1992. Google Scholar
  22. Susan L. Feagin. Reading with feeling: The aesthetics of appreciation. Cornell University Press, 1996. Google Scholar
  23. Nuno Ferreira, Samuel Mascarenhas, Ana Paiva, Gennaro Di Tosto, Frank Dignum, John Mc Breen, Nick Degens, Gert Hofstede, Giulia Andrighetto, and Rosaria Conte. An agent model for the appraisal of normative events based in in-group and out-group relations. In AAAI-13 CogSys - Twenty-Seventh AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. AAAI-13 Twenty-Seventh AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, July 2013. Google Scholar
  24. Richard E. Fikes and Nils J. Nilsson. Strips: A new approach to the application of theorem proving to problem solving. Artificial intelligence, 2(3):189-208, 1972. Google Scholar
  25. Bas C. Van Fraassen. Values and the heart’s command. Journal of Philosophy, 70(1):5-19, 1973. Google Scholar
  26. Robert H Frank. Introducing moral emotions into models of rational choice. In Feelings and Emotions: The Amsterdam Symposium, Jun, 2001, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Cambridge University Press, 2004. Google Scholar
  27. Patrick Gebhard. Alma: a layered model of affect. In Proceedings of the fourth international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems, AAMAS'05, pages 29-36, New York, NY, USA, 2005. ACM. Google Scholar
  28. Alessandro Giovannelli. In sympathy with narrative character. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, I(67):83-95, 2009. Google Scholar
  29. Jonathan Gratch, Wenji Mao, and Stacy Marsella. Modeling social emotions and social attributions. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Google Scholar
  30. Jonathan Haidt. The moral emotions. Handbook of affective sciences, pages 852-870, 2003. Google Scholar
  31. David Hume. A Treatise of Human Nature (Oxford Philosophical Texts). Oxford University Press, USA, February 2000. Google Scholar
  32. Richard S. Lazarus. Emotion and Adaptation. Oxford University Press, USA, August 1991. Google Scholar
  33. Stacy C Marsella and Jonathan Gratch. Ema: A process model of appraisal dynamics. Cognitive Systems Research, 10(1):70-90, 2009. Google Scholar
  34. Stacy C. Marsella, Jonathan Gratch, and Paola Petta. Computational models of emotion. In K. R. Scherer, T. Bänziger, and Roesch, editors, A blueprint for an affectively competent agent: Cross-fertilization between Emotion Psychology, Affective Neuroscience, and Affective Computing. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010. Google Scholar
  35. R. McKee. Story. Harper Collins, New York, 1997. Google Scholar
  36. Andrew Ortony, Allan Collins, and Gerald L. Clore. The cognitive structure of emotions. Cambridge University Press Cambridge [England] ; New York, pbk. ed. edition, 1988. Google Scholar
  37. G. Polti. Les trente-six situations dramatiques. Mercure de France, Paris, 1895. Google Scholar
  38. S. A. Rao. Georgeff. mp, bdi agents: From theory to practice. In Conference Proceedings of 1st international conference on multiple agent system, pages 312-319, 1995. Google Scholar
  39. W. Scott Reilly and Joseph Bates. Building emotional agents, 1992. Google Scholar
  40. Ira J Roseman. Appraisal determinants of discrete emotions. Cognition &Emotion, 5(3):161-200, 1991. Google Scholar
  41. K. R. Scherer. The role of culture in emotion-antecedent appraisal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73:902-922, 1997. Google Scholar
  42. Mei Si, Stacy C. Marsella, and David V. Pynadath. Modeling appraisal in theory of mind reasoning. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 20(1):14-31, 2010. Google Scholar
  43. Adam Smith. The theory of moral sentiments, 1984. Google Scholar
  44. Greg M. Smith. Film Structure and the Emotion System. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003. Google Scholar
  45. M. B. van Riemsdijk, M. Dastani, and M. Winikoff. Goals in Agent Systems: A Unifying Framework. In Proceedings of AAMAS'08, 2008. Google Scholar
  46. Alicia E. Vélez García and Feggy Ostrosky-Solís. From morality to moral emotions. International Journal of Psychology, 41(5):348-354, 2006. Google Scholar
  47. Stephen G. Ware. A computational model of narrative conflict. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Foundations of Digital Games, pages 247-249. ACM, 2011. Google Scholar
Questions / Remarks / Feedback

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing

Thanks for your feedback!

Feedback submitted

Could not send message

Please try again later or send an E-mail