Analysis of Two-Layer Protocols: DCCP Simultaneous-Open and Hole Punching Procedures

Author Somsak Vanit-Anunchai

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Somsak Vanit-Anunchai

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Somsak Vanit-Anunchai. Analysis of Two-Layer Protocols: DCCP Simultaneous-Open and Hole Punching Procedures. In 1st French Singaporean Workshop on Formal Methods and Applications (FSFMA 2013). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 31, pp. 3-17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2013)


The simultaneous-open procedure of the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP), RFC 5596, was published in September 2009. Its design aims to overcome DCCP weaknesses when the Server is behind a middle box, such as Network Address Translators or firewalls. The original DCCP specification, RFC 4340, only allows the Client to initiate the call. The call request cannot reach the Server behind the middle box. A widely used solution to address this problem is called the hole punching technique. This technique requires the Server to initiate sending packets. Using Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) this paper models and analyses the DCCP procedure specified in RFC 5596. However, the difficulty is that detailed modelling of the address translation is also required. This causes state space explosion. We alleviate the state explosion using prioritized transitions and the sweep-line technique. Modelling and analysis approaches are discussed in the hope that it is helpful for others who wish to analyse similar protocols. Analysis results are also obtained for the simultaneous-open procedure specified in RFC 5596.
  • Network Address Translators
  • Coloured Petri Nets
  • Sweep-line Method
  • Prioritized Transitions


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