Document Open Access Logo

Experience Report: First Steps towards a Microservice Architecture for Virtual Power Plants in the Energy Sector

Authors Manuel Wickert , Sven Liebehentze , Albert Zündorf

Thumbnail PDF


  • Filesize: 2.1 MB
  • 10 pages

Document Identifiers

Author Details

Manuel Wickert
  • Fraunhofer IEE, Kassel, Germany
Sven Liebehentze
  • Fraunhofer IEE, Kassel, Germany
Albert Zündorf
  • University of Kassel, Germany

Cite AsGet BibTex

Manuel Wickert, Sven Liebehentze, and Albert Zündorf. Experience Report: First Steps towards a Microservice Architecture for Virtual Power Plants in the Energy Sector. In Joint Post-proceedings of the First and Second International Conference on Microservices (Microservices 2017/2019). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 78, pp. 2:1-2:10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


Virtual Power Plants provide energy sector stakeholders a useful abstraction for distributed energy resources by aggregating them. Software systems enabling this are critical infrastructure and must handle a fast-growing number of distributed energy resources. Modern architecture such as Microservice architecture can therefore be a good choice for dealing with such scalable systems where changing market and regulation requirements are part of every day business. In this report, we outline first experiences gained during the change from the existing Virtual Power Plant software monolith to Microservice architecture.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Software and its engineering → Software design engineering
  • Hardware → Smart grid
  • Microservices
  • VPP
  • Virtual Power Plants
  • Domain Driven Design


  • Access Statistics
  • Total Accesses (updated on a weekly basis)
    PDF Downloads


  1. Angular Framework. URL:
  2. Kaibin Bao, Ingo Mauser, Sebastian Kochanneck, Huiwen Xu, and Hartmut Schmeck. A Microservice Architecture for the Intranet of Things and Energy in Smart Buildings: Research Paper. In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Mashups of Things and APIs, MOTA@Middleware 2016, Trento, Italy, December 12-13, 2016, pages 1-6, December 2016. URL:
  3. Martin Braun. Virtual power plants in real applications: Pilot demonstrations in Spain and England as part of the european project FENIX. Fraunhofer IWES, January 2009. Google Scholar
  4. Evans. Domain-Driven Design: Tacking Complexity In the Heart of Software. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston, MA, USA, 2003. Google Scholar
  5. Martin Fowler and James Lewis. Microservices, 2014. URL:
  6. William E. Hart, Carl D. Laird, Jean-Paul Watson, David L. Woodruff, Gabriel A. Hackebeil, Bethany L. Nicholson, and John D. Siirola. Pyomo-optimization modeling in python, volume 67. Springer Science &Business Media, second edition, 2017. Google Scholar
  7. William E Hart, Jean-Paul Watson, and David L Woodruff. Pyomo: modeling and solving mathematical programs in Python. Mathematical Programming Computation, 3(3):219-260, 2011. Google Scholar
  8. G. Hohpe and B.A. WOOLF. Enterprise Integration Patterns: Designing, Building, and Deploying Messaging Solutions. The Addison-Wesley Signature Series. Prentice Hall, 2004. URL:
  9. B. Jansen, C. Binding, O. Sundstrom, and D. Gantenbein. Architecture and Communication of an Electric Vehicle Virtual Power Plant. In 2010 First IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, pages 149-154, October 2010. URL:
  10. Ingo Mauser, Christian Hirsch, Sebastian Kochanneck, and Hartmut Schmeck. Organic Architecture for Energy Management and Smart Grids. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Autonomic Computing, Grenoble, France, July 7-10, 2015, pages 101-108, 2015. URL:
  11. Antonello Monti, editor. Technologies and Methodologies in Modern Distribution Grid Automation, volume 15. Elsevier, Amsterdam [u.a.], 2018. URL:
  12. Sam Newman. Building Microservices. O'Reilly Media, Inc., 1st edition, 2015. Google Scholar
  13. Seyyed Mostafa Nosratabadi, Rahmat-Allah Hooshmand, and Eskandar Gholipour. A comprehensive review on microgrid and virtual power plant concepts employed for distributed energy resources scheduling in power systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 67(C):341-363, 2017. URL:
  14. H. Saboori, M. Mohammadi, and R. Taghe. Virtual Power Plant (VPP), Definition, Concept, Components and Types. In Proceedings of the 2011 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, APPEEC '11, pages 1-4, Washington, DC, USA, 2011. IEEE Computer Society. URL:
  15. Vaughn Vernon. Implementing Domain-Driven Design. Addison-Wesley Professional, 1st edition, 2013. Google Scholar
  16. Matej Zajc, Mitja Kolenc, and Nermin Suljanovic. Virtual Power Plant Communication System Architecture, chapter 11, pages 231-250. Elsevier, 2018. URL: