License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2022.20
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163377
URL: https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2022/16337/
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Vilardell, Sergi ; Serra, Isabel ; Mezzetti, Enrico ; Abella, Jaume ; Cazorla, Francisco J. ; del Castillo, Joan

Using Markov’s Inequality with Power-Of-k Function for Probabilistic WCET Estimation

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LIPIcs-ECRTS-2022-20.pdf (2 MB)


Abstract

Deriving WCET estimates for software programs with probabilistic means (a.k.a. pWCET estimation) has received significant attention during last years as a way to deal with the increased complexity of the processors used in real-time systems. Many works build on Extreme Value Theory (EVT) that is fed with a sample of the collected data (execution times). In its application, EVT carries two sources of uncertainty: the first one that is intrinsic to the EVT model and relates to determining the subset of the sample that belongs to the (upper) tail, and hence, is actually used by EVT for prediction; and the second one that is induced by the sampling process and hence is inherent to all sample-based methods. In this work, we show that Markov’s inequality can be used to obtain provable trustworthy probabilistic bounds to the tail of a distribution without incurring any model-intrinsic uncertainty. Yet, it produces pessimistic estimates that we shave substantially by proposing the use of a power-of-k function instead of the default identity function used by Markov’s inequality. Lastly, we propose a method to deal with sampling uncertainty for Markov’s inequality that consistently improves EVT estimates on synthetic and real data obtained from a railway application.

BibTeX - Entry

@InProceedings{vilardell_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2022.20,
  author =	{Vilardell, Sergi and Serra, Isabel and Mezzetti, Enrico and Abella, Jaume and Cazorla, Francisco J. and del Castillo, Joan},
  title =	{{Using Markov’s Inequality with Power-Of-k Function for Probabilistic WCET Estimation}},
  booktitle =	{34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022)},
  pages =	{20:1--20:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-239-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{231},
  editor =	{Maggio, Martina},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2022/16337},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163377},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2022.20},
  annote =	{Keywords: Markov’s inequality, probabilistic time estimates, probabilistic WCET, Extreme Value Theory}
}

Keywords: Markov’s inequality, probabilistic time estimates, probabilistic WCET, Extreme Value Theory
Collection: 34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022)
Issue Date: 2022
Date of publication: 28.06.2022


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