Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik GmbH Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik GmbH scholarly article en Björklund, Andreas; Lokshtanov, Daniel; Saurabh, Saket; Zehavi, Meirav License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC-BY 3.0)
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URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106001

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Approximate Counting of k-Paths: Deterministic and in Polynomial Space



A few years ago, Alon et al. [ISMB 2008] gave a simple randomized O((2e)^km epsilon^{-2})-time exponential-space algorithm to approximately compute the number of paths on k vertices in a graph G up to a multiplicative error of 1 +/- epsilon. Shortly afterwards, Alon and Gutner [IWPEC 2009, TALG 2010] gave a deterministic exponential-space algorithm with running time (2e)^{k+O(log^3k)}m log n whenever epsilon^{-1}=k^{O(1)}. Recently, Brand et al. [STOC 2018] provided a speed-up at the cost of reintroducing randomization. Specifically, they gave a randomized O(4^km epsilon^{-2})-time exponential-space algorithm. In this article, we revisit the algorithm by Alon and Gutner. We modify the foundation of their work, and with a novel twist, obtain the following results. - We present a deterministic 4^{k+O(sqrt{k}(log^2k+log^2 epsilon^{-1}))}m log n-time polynomial-space algorithm. This matches the running time of the best known deterministic polynomial-space algorithm for deciding whether a given graph G has a path on k vertices. - Additionally, we present a randomized 4^{k+O(log k(log k + log epsilon^{-1}))}m log n-time polynomial-space algorithm. While Brand et al. make non-trivial use of exterior algebra, our algorithm is very simple; we only make elementary use of the probabilistic method. Thus, the algorithm by Brand et al. runs in time 4^{k+o(k)}m whenever epsilon^{-1}=2^{o(k)}, while our deterministic and randomized algorithms run in time 4^{k+o(k)}m log n whenever epsilon^{-1}=2^{o(k^{1/4})} and epsilon^{-1}=2^{o(k/(log k))}, respectively. Prior to our work, no 2^{O(k)}n^{O(1)}-time polynomial-space algorithm was known. Additionally, our approach is embeddable in the classic framework of divide-and-color, hence it immediately extends to approximate counting of graphs of bounded treewidth; in comparison, Brand et al. note that their approach is limited to graphs of bounded pathwidth.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Andreas Bj{\"o}rklund and Daniel Lokshtanov and Saket Saurabh and Meirav Zehavi},
  title =	{{Approximate Counting of k-Paths: Deterministic and in Polynomial Space}},
  booktitle =	{46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)},
  pages =	{24:1--24:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-109-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{132},
  editor =	{Christel Baier and Ioannis Chatzigiannakis and Paola Flocchini and Stefano Leonardi},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106001},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.24},
  annote =	{Keywords: parameterized complexity, approximate counting, { k}-Path}

Keywords: parameterized complexity, approximate counting, { k}-Path
Seminar: 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)
Issue date: 2019
Date of publication: 04.07.2019

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