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URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164323
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Backdoor Sets on Nowhere Dense SAT

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Abstract

For a satisfiable CNF formula ϕ and an integer t, a weak backdoor set to treewidth-t is a set of variables such that there is an assignment to this set that reduces ϕ to a satisfiable formula that has an incidence graph of treewidth at most t. A natural research program in the work on fixed-parameter algorithms (FPT algorithms) for SAT is to delineate the tractability borders for the problem of detecting a small weak backdoor set to treewidth-t formulas. In this line of research, Gaspers and Szeider (ICALP 2012) showed that detecting a weak backdoor set of size at most k to treewidth-1 is W[2]-hard parameterized by k if the input is an arbitrary CNF formula. Fomin, Lokshtanov, Misra, Ramanujan and Saurabh (SODA 2015), showed that if the input is d-CNF, then detecting a weak backdoor set of size at most k to treewidth-t is fixed-parameter tractable (parameterized by k,t,d). These two results indicate that sparsity of the input plays a role in determining the parameterized complexity of detecting weak backdoor sets to treewidth-t.
In this work, we take a major step towards characterizing the precise impact of sparsity on the parameterized complexity of this problem by obtaining algorithmic results for detecting small weak backdoor sets to treewidth-t for input formulas whose incidence graphs belong to a nowhere-dense graph class. Nowhere density provides a robust and well-understood notion of sparsity that is at the heart of several advances on model checking and structural graph theory. Moreover, nowhere-dense graph classes contain many well-studied graph classes such as bounded treewidth graphs, graphs that exclude a fixed (topological) minor and graphs of bounded expansion.
Our main contribution is an algorithm that, given a formula ϕ whose incidence graph belongs to a fixed nowhere-dense graph class and an integer k, in time f(t,k)|ϕ|^O(1), either finds a satisfying assignment of ϕ, or concludes correctly that ϕ has no weak backdoor set of size at most k to treewidth-t.
To obtain this algorithm, we develop a strategy that only relies on the fact that nowhere-dense graph classes are biclique-free. That is, for every nowhere-dense graph class, there is a p such that it is contained in the class of graphs that exclude K_{p,p} as a subgraph. This is a significant feature of our techniques since the class of biclique-free graphs also generalizes the class of graphs of bounded degeneracy, which are incomparable with nowhere-dense graph classes. As a result, our algorithm also generalizes the results of Fomin, Lokshtanov, Misra, Ramanujan and Saurabh (SODA 2015) for the special case of d-CNF formulas as input when d is fixed. This is because the incidence graphs of such formulas exclude K_{d+1,d+1} as a subgraph.

BibTeX - Entry

@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.91,
  author =	{Lokshtanov, Daniel and Panolan, Fahad and Ramanujan, M. S.},
  title =	{{Backdoor Sets on Nowhere Dense SAT}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{91:1--91:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2022/16432},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164323},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.91},
  annote =	{Keywords: Fixed-parameter Tractability, Satisfiability, Backdoors, Treewidth}
}

Keywords: Fixed-parameter Tractability, Satisfiability, Backdoors, Treewidth
Seminar: 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)
Issue date: 2022
Date of publication: 28.06.2022


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