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Documents authored by Becker, Aaron T.


Document
Media Exposition
Can You Walk This? Eulerian Tours and IDEA Instructions (Media Exposition)

Authors: Aaron T. Becker, Sándor P. Fekete, Matthias Konitzny, Sebastian Morr, and Arne Schmidt

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 189, 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)


Abstract
We illustrate and animate the classic problem of deciding whether a given graph has an Eulerian path. Starting with a collection of instances of increasing difficulty, we present a set of pictorial instructions, and show how they can be used to solve all instances. These IDEA instructions ("A series of nonverbal algorithm assembly instructions") have proven to be both entertaining for experts and enlightening for novices. We (w)rap up with a song and dance to Euler’s original instance.

Cite as

Aaron T. Becker, Sándor P. Fekete, Matthias Konitzny, Sebastian Morr, and Arne Schmidt. Can You Walk This? Eulerian Tours and IDEA Instructions (Media Exposition). In 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 189, pp. 62:1-62:4, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.62,
  author =	{Becker, Aaron T. and Fekete, S\'{a}ndor P. and Konitzny, Matthias and Morr, Sebastian and Schmidt, Arne},
  title =	{{Can You Walk This? Eulerian Tours and IDEA Instructions}},
  booktitle =	{37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)},
  pages =	{62:1--62:4},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-184-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{189},
  editor =	{Buchin, Kevin and Colin de Verdi\`{e}re, \'{E}ric},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.62},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-138616},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.62},
  annote =	{Keywords: Eulerian tours, algorithms, education, IDEA instructions}
}
Document
Media Exposition
Coordinated Particle Relocation with Global Signals and Local Friction (Media Exposition)

Authors: Victor M. Baez, Aaron T. Becker, Sándor P. Fekete, and Arne Schmidt

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)


Abstract
In this video, we present theoretical and practical methods for achieving arbitrary reconfiguration of a set of objects, based on the use of external forces, such as a magnetic field or gravity: Upon actuation, each object is pushed in the same direction. This concept can be used for a wide range of applications in which particles do not have their own energy supply or in which they are subject to the same global control commands. A crucial challenge for achieving any desired target configuration is breaking global symmetry in a controlled fashion. Previous work (some of which was presented during SoCG 2015) made use of specifically placed barriers; however, introducing precisely located obstacles into the workspace is impractical for many scenarios. In this paper, we present a different, less intrusive method: making use of the interplay between static friction with a boundary and the external force to achieve arbitrary reconfiguration. Our key contributions are theoretical characterizations of the critical coefficient of friction that is sufficient for rearranging two particles in triangles, convex polygons, and regular polygons; a method for reconfiguring multiple particles in rectangular workspaces, and deriving practical algorithms for these rearrangements. Hardware experiments show the efficacy of these procedures, demonstrating the usefulness of this novel approach.

Cite as

Victor M. Baez, Aaron T. Becker, Sándor P. Fekete, and Arne Schmidt. Coordinated Particle Relocation with Global Signals and Local Friction (Media Exposition). In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 72:1-72:5, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{baez_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.72,
  author =	{Baez, Victor M. and Becker, Aaron T. and Fekete, S\'{a}ndor P. and Schmidt, Arne},
  title =	{{Coordinated Particle Relocation with Global Signals and Local Friction}},
  booktitle =	{36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)},
  pages =	{72:1--72:5},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-143-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{164},
  editor =	{Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.72},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-122305},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.72},
  annote =	{Keywords: Global control, reconfiguration, geometric algorithms, friction}
}
Document
Media Exposition
Space Ants: Constructing and Reconfiguring Large-Scale Structures with Finite Automata (Media Exposition)

Authors: Amira Abdel-Rahman, Aaron T. Becker, Daniel E. Biediger, Kenneth C. Cheung, Sándor P. Fekete, Neil A. Gershenfeld, Sabrina Hugo, Benjamin Jenett, Phillip Keldenich, Eike Niehs, Christian Rieck, Arne Schmidt, Christian Scheffer, and Michael Yannuzzi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)


Abstract
In this video, we consider recognition and reconfiguration of lattice-based cellular structures by very simple robots with only basic functionality. The underlying motivation is the construction and modification of space facilities of enormous dimensions, where the combination of new materials with extremely simple robots promises structures of previously unthinkable size and flexibility. We present algorithmic methods that are able to detect and reconfigure arbitrary polyominoes, based on finite-state robots, while also preserving connectivity of a structure during reconfiguration. Specific results include methods for determining a bounding box, scaling a given arrangement, and adapting more general algorithms for transforming polyominoes.

Cite as

Amira Abdel-Rahman, Aaron T. Becker, Daniel E. Biediger, Kenneth C. Cheung, Sándor P. Fekete, Neil A. Gershenfeld, Sabrina Hugo, Benjamin Jenett, Phillip Keldenich, Eike Niehs, Christian Rieck, Arne Schmidt, Christian Scheffer, and Michael Yannuzzi. Space Ants: Constructing and Reconfiguring Large-Scale Structures with Finite Automata (Media Exposition). In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 73:1-73:6, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{abdelrahman_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.73,
  author =	{Abdel-Rahman, Amira and Becker, Aaron T. and Biediger, Daniel E. and Cheung, Kenneth C. and Fekete, S\'{a}ndor P. and Gershenfeld, Neil A. and Hugo, Sabrina and Jenett, Benjamin and Keldenich, Phillip and Niehs, Eike and Rieck, Christian and Schmidt, Arne and Scheffer, Christian and Yannuzzi, Michael},
  title =	{{Space Ants: Constructing and Reconfiguring Large-Scale Structures with Finite Automata}},
  booktitle =	{36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)},
  pages =	{73:1--73:6},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-143-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{164},
  editor =	{Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.73},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-122310},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.73},
  annote =	{Keywords: Finite automata, reconfiguration, construction, scaling}
}
Document
Media Exposition
How to Make a CG Video (Media Exposition)

Authors: Aaron T. Becker and Sándor P. Fekete

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)


Abstract
In this video we describe why producing a Computational Geometry video is a good idea, what it takes to make one, and how to actually do it. This includes a guide for the overall process, a number of examples, and a variety of tips and tricks.

Cite as

Aaron T. Becker and Sándor P. Fekete. How to Make a CG Video (Media Exposition). In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 74:1-74:6, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.74,
  author =	{Becker, Aaron T. and Fekete, S\'{a}ndor P.},
  title =	{{How to Make a CG Video}},
  booktitle =	{36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)},
  pages =	{74:1--74:6},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-143-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{164},
  editor =	{Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.74},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-122328},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.74},
  annote =	{Keywords: Videos, animation, education, SoCG Multimedia}
}
Document
Multimedia Exposition
Packing Geometric Objects with Optimal Worst-Case Density (Multimedia Exposition)

Authors: Aaron T. Becker, Sándor P. Fekete, Phillip Keldenich, Sebastian Morr, and Christian Scheffer

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 129, 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)


Abstract
We motivate and visualize problems and methods for packing a set of objects into a given container, in particular a set of {different-size} circles or squares into a square or circular container. Questions of this type have attracted a considerable amount of attention and are known to be notoriously hard. We focus on a particularly simple criterion for deciding whether a set can be packed: comparing the total area A of all objects to the area C of the container. The critical packing density delta^* is the largest value A/C for which any set of area A can be packed into a container of area C. We describe algorithms that establish the critical density of squares in a square (delta^*=0.5), of circles in a square (delta^*=0.5390 ...), regular octagons in a square (delta^*=0.5685 ...), and circles in a circle (delta^*=0.5).

Cite as

Aaron T. Becker, Sándor P. Fekete, Phillip Keldenich, Sebastian Morr, and Christian Scheffer. Packing Geometric Objects with Optimal Worst-Case Density (Multimedia Exposition). In 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 129, pp. 63:1-63:6, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.63,
  author =	{Becker, Aaron T. and Fekete, S\'{a}ndor P. and Keldenich, Phillip and Morr, Sebastian and Scheffer, Christian},
  title =	{{Packing Geometric Objects with Optimal Worst-Case Density}},
  booktitle =	{35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)},
  pages =	{63:1--63:6},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-104-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{129},
  editor =	{Barequet, Gill and Wang, Yusu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.63},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-104678},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.63},
  annote =	{Keywords: Packing, complexity, bounds, packing density}
}
Document
Multimedia Exposition
Coordinated Motion Planning: The Video (Multimedia Exposition)

Authors: Aaron T. Becker, Sándor P. Fekete, Phillip Keldenich, Matthias Konitzny, Lillian Lin, and Christian Scheffer

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 99, 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)


Abstract
We motivate, visualize and demonstrate recent work for minimizing the total execution time of a coordinated, parallel motion plan for a swarm of N robots in the absence of obstacles. Under relatively mild assumptions on the separability of robots, the algorithm achieves constant stretch: If all robots want to move at most d units from their respective starting positions, then the total duration of the overall schedule (and hence the distance traveled by each robot) is O(d) steps; this implies constant-factor approximation for the optimization problem. Also mentioned is an NP-hardness result for finding an optimal schedule, even in the case in which robot positions are restricted to a regular grid. On the other hand, we show that for densely packed disks that cannot be well separated, a stretch factor Omega(N^{1/4}) is required in the worst case; we establish an achievable stretch factor of O(N^{1/2}) even in this case. We also sketch geometric difficulties of computing optimal trajectories, even for just two unit disks.

Cite as

Aaron T. Becker, Sándor P. Fekete, Phillip Keldenich, Matthias Konitzny, Lillian Lin, and Christian Scheffer. Coordinated Motion Planning: The Video (Multimedia Exposition). In 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 99, pp. 74:1-74:6, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.74,
  author =	{Becker, Aaron T. and Fekete, S\'{a}ndor P. and Keldenich, Phillip and Konitzny, Matthias and Lin, Lillian and Scheffer, Christian},
  title =	{{Coordinated Motion Planning: The Video}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)},
  pages =	{74:1--74:6},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-066-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{99},
  editor =	{Speckmann, Bettina and T\'{o}th, Csaba D.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.74},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-87872},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.74},
  annote =	{Keywords: Motion planning, robot swarms, complexity, stretch, approximation}
}
Document
Tilt Assembly: Algorithms for Micro-Factories that Build Objects with Uniform External Forces

Authors: Aaron T. Becker, Sándor P. Fekete, Phillip Keldenich, Dominik Krupke, Christian Rieck, Christian Scheffer, and Arne Schmidt

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 92, 28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017)


Abstract
We present algorithmic results for the parallel assembly of many micro-scale objects in two and three dimensions from tiny particles, which has been proposed in the context of programmable matter and self-assembly for building high-yield micro-factories. The underlying model has particles moving under the influence of uniform external forces until they hit an obstacle; particles can bond when being forced together with another appropriate particle. Due to the physical and geometric constraints, not all shapes can be built in this manner; this gives rise to the Tilt Assembly Problem (TAP) of deciding constructibility. For simply-connected polyominoes P in 2D consisting of N unit-squares ("tiles"), we prove that TAP can be decided in O(N log N) time. For the optimization variant MaxTAP (in which the objective is to construct a subshape of maximum possible size), we show polyAPX-hardness: unless P=NP, MaxTAP cannot be approximated within a factor of N^(1/3); for tree-shaped structures, we give an N^(1/2)-approximation algorithm. For the efficiency of the assembly process itself, we show that any constructible shape allows pipelined assembly, which produces copies of P in O(1) amortized time, i.e., N copies of P in O(N) time steps. These considerations can be extended to three-dimensional objects: For the class of polycubes P we prove that it is NP-hard to decide whether it is possible to construct a path between two points of P; it is also NP-hard to decide constructibility of a polycube P. Moreover, it is expAPX-hard to maximize a path from a given start point.

Cite as

Aaron T. Becker, Sándor P. Fekete, Phillip Keldenich, Dominik Krupke, Christian Rieck, Christian Scheffer, and Arne Schmidt. Tilt Assembly: Algorithms for Micro-Factories that Build Objects with Uniform External Forces. In 28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 92, pp. 11:1-11:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.11,
  author =	{Becker, Aaron T. and Fekete, S\'{a}ndor P. and Keldenich, Phillip and Krupke, Dominik and Rieck, Christian and Scheffer, Christian and Schmidt, Arne},
  title =	{{Tilt Assembly: Algorithms for Micro-Factories that Build Objects with Uniform External Forces}},
  booktitle =	{28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-054-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{92},
  editor =	{Okamoto, Yoshio and Tokuyama, Takeshi},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-82214},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: Programmable matter, micro-factories, tile assembly, tilt, approximation, hardness}
}
Document
Multimedia Contribution
Zapping Zika with a Mosquito-Managing Drone: Computing Optimal Flight Patterns with Minimum Turn Cost (Multimedia Contribution)

Authors: Aaron T. Becker, Mustapha Debboun, Sándor P. Fekete, Dominik Krupke, and An Nguyen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 77, 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)


Abstract
We present results arising from the problem of sweeping a mosquito-infested area with an Un-manned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with an electrified metal grid. This is related to the Traveling Salesman Problem, the Lawn Mower Problem and, most closely, Milling with TurnCost. Planning a good trajectory can be reduced to considering penalty and budget variants of covering a grid graph with minimum turn cost. On the theoretical side, we show the solution of a problem from The Open Problems Project that had been open for more than 15 years, and hint at approximation algorithms. On the practical side, we describe an exact method based on Integer Programming that is able to compute provably optimal instances with over 500 pixels. These solutions are actually used for practical trajectories, as demonstrated in the video.

Cite as

Aaron T. Becker, Mustapha Debboun, Sándor P. Fekete, Dominik Krupke, and An Nguyen. Zapping Zika with a Mosquito-Managing Drone: Computing Optimal Flight Patterns with Minimum Turn Cost (Multimedia Contribution). In 33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 77, pp. 62:1-62:5, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.62,
  author =	{Becker, Aaron T. and Debboun, Mustapha and Fekete, S\'{a}ndor P. and Krupke, Dominik and Nguyen, An},
  title =	{{Zapping Zika with a Mosquito-Managing Drone: Computing Optimal Flight Patterns with Minimum Turn Cost}},
  booktitle =	{33rd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2017)},
  pages =	{62:1--62:5},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-038-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{77},
  editor =	{Aronov, Boris and Katz, Matthew J.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.62},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-72394},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2017.62},
  annote =	{Keywords: Covering tours, turn cost, complexity, exact optimization}
}
Document
Tilt: The Video - Designing Worlds to Control Robot Swarms with Only Global Signals

Authors: Aaron T. Becker, Erik D. Demaine, Sándor P. Fekete, Hamed Mohtasham Shad, and Rose Morris-Wright

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 34, 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)


Abstract
We present fundamental progress on the computational universality of swarms of micro- or nano-scale robots in complex environments, controlled not by individual navigation, but by a uniform global, external force. More specifically, we consider a 2D grid world, in which all obstacles and robots are unit squares, and for each actuation, robots move maximally until they collide with an obstacle or another robot. The objective is to control robot motion within obstacles, design obstacles in order to achieve desired permutation of robots, and establish controlled interaction that is complex enough to allow arbitrary computations. In this video, we illustrate progress on all these challenges: we demonstrate NP-hardness of parallel navigation, we describe how to construct obstacles that allow arbitrary permutations, and we establish the necessary logic gates for performing arbitrary in-system computations.

Cite as

Aaron T. Becker, Erik D. Demaine, Sándor P. Fekete, Hamed Mohtasham Shad, and Rose Morris-Wright. Tilt: The Video - Designing Worlds to Control Robot Swarms with Only Global Signals. In 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 34, pp. 16-18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)


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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.16,
  author =	{Becker, Aaron T. and Demaine, Erik D. and Fekete, S\'{a}ndor P. and Shad, Hamed Mohtasham and Morris-Wright, Rose},
  title =	{{Tilt: The Video - Designing Worlds to Control Robot Swarms with Only Global Signals}},
  booktitle =	{31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)},
  pages =	{16--18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-83-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2015},
  volume =	{34},
  editor =	{Arge, Lars and Pach, J\'{a}nos},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-50870},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Particle swarms, global control, complexity, geometric computation}
}
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