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Documents authored by Chen, Kuan-Hsun


Document
On the Equivalence of Maximum Reaction Time and Maximum Data Age for Cause-Effect Chains

Authors: Mario Günzel, Harun Teper, Kuan-Hsun Chen, Georg von der Brüggen, and Jian-Jia Chen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 262, 35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023)


Abstract
Real-time systems require a formal guarantee of timing-constraints, not only for individual tasks but also for data-propagation. The timing behavior of data-propagation paths in a given system is typically described by its maximum reaction time and its maximum data age. This paper shows that they are equivalent. To reach this conclusion, partitioned job chains are introduced, which consist of one immediate forward and one immediate backward job chain. Such partitioned job chains are proven to describe maximum reaction time and maximum data age in a universal manner. This universal description does not only show the equivalence of maximum reaction time and maximum data age, but can also be exploited to speed up the computation of such significantly. In particular, the speed-up for synthesized task sets based on automotive benchmarks can be up to 1600. Since only very few non-restrictive assumptions are made, the equivalence of maximum data age and maximum reaction time holds for almost any scheduling mechanism and even for tasks which do not adhere to the typical periodic or sporadic task model. This observation is supported by a simulation of a ROS2 navigation system.

Cite as

Mario Günzel, Harun Teper, Kuan-Hsun Chen, Georg von der Brüggen, and Jian-Jia Chen. On the Equivalence of Maximum Reaction Time and Maximum Data Age for Cause-Effect Chains. In 35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 262, pp. 10:1-10:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{gunzel_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2023.10,
  author =	{G\"{u}nzel, Mario and Teper, Harun and Chen, Kuan-Hsun and von der Br\"{u}ggen, Georg and Chen, Jian-Jia},
  title =	{{On the Equivalence of Maximum Reaction Time and Maximum Data Age for Cause-Effect Chains}},
  booktitle =	{35th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2023)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-280-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{262},
  editor =	{Papadopoulos, Alessandro V.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2023.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180392},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2023.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: End-to-End, Timing Analysis, Maximum Data Age, Maximum Reaction Time, Cause-Effect Chain, Robot Operating Systems 2 (ROS2)}
}
Document
LLVMTA: An LLVM-Based WCET Analysis Tool

Authors: Sebastian Hahn, Michael Jacobs, Nils Hölscher, Kuan-Hsun Chen, Jian-Jia Chen, and Jan Reineke

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 103, 20th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2022)


Abstract
We present llvmta, an academic WCET analysis tool based on the LLVM compiler infrastructure. It aims to enable the evaluation of novel WCET analysis approaches in a state-of-the-art analysis framework without dealing with the complexity of modeling real-world hardware architectures. We discuss the main design decisions and interfaces that allow to implement new analysis approaches. Finally, we highlight various existing research projects whose evaluation has been enabled by llvmta.

Cite as

Sebastian Hahn, Michael Jacobs, Nils Hölscher, Kuan-Hsun Chen, Jian-Jia Chen, and Jan Reineke. LLVMTA: An LLVM-Based WCET Analysis Tool. In 20th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2022). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 103, pp. 2:1-2:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{hahn_et_al:OASIcs.WCET.2022.2,
  author =	{Hahn, Sebastian and Jacobs, Michael and H\"{o}lscher, Nils and Chen, Kuan-Hsun and Chen, Jian-Jia and Reineke, Jan},
  title =	{{LLVMTA: An LLVM-Based WCET Analysis Tool}},
  booktitle =	{20th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET 2022)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:17},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-244-0},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{103},
  editor =	{Ballabriga, Cl\'{e}ment},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2022.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-166242},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.WCET.2022.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: WCET analysis, low-level analysis, LLVM}
}
Document
Artifact
Unikernel-Based Real-Time Virtualization Under Deferrable Servers: Analysis and Realization (Artifact)

Authors: Kuan-Hsun Chen, Mario Günzel, Boguslaw Jablkowski, Markus Buschhoff, and Jian-Jia Chen

Published in: DARTS, Volume 8, Issue 1, Special Issue of the 34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022)


Abstract
This artifact provides the source code to validate and reproduce the numerical results of the associated paper "Unikernel-Based Real-Time Virtualization under Deferrable Servers: Analysis and Realization". Due to the nature of a close-source project with the company, i.e., EMVICORE GmbH, the source code of the case study in Section 6.2 is not included in this artifact.

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Kuan-Hsun Chen, Mario Günzel, Boguslaw Jablkowski, Markus Buschhoff, and Jian-Jia Chen. Unikernel-Based Real-Time Virtualization Under Deferrable Servers: Analysis and Realization (Artifact). In Special Issue of the 34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022). Dagstuhl Artifacts Series (DARTS), Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 2:1-2:2, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@Article{chen_et_al:DARTS.8.1.2,
  author =	{Chen, Kuan-Hsun and G\"{u}nzel, Mario and Jablkowski, Boguslaw and Buschhoff, Markus and Chen, Jian-Jia},
  title =	{{Unikernel-Based Real-Time Virtualization Under Deferrable Servers: Analysis and Realization (Artifact)}},
  pages =	{2:1--2:2},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Artifacts Series},
  ISSN =	{2509-8195},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{8},
  number =	{1},
  editor =	{Chen, Kuan-Hsun and G\"{u}nzel, Mario and Jablkowski, Boguslaw and Buschhoff, Markus and Chen, Jian-Jia},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DARTS.8.1.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164987},
  doi =		{10.4230/DARTS.8.1.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Unikernel, Virtualization, Reservation Servers, Deferrable Servers, Cyber-Physical Systems, Real-Time Systems}
}
Document
Unikernel-Based Real-Time Virtualization Under Deferrable Servers: Analysis and Realization

Authors: Kuan-Hsun Chen, Mario Günzel, Boguslaw Jablkowski, Markus Buschhoff, and Jian-Jia Chen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 231, 34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022)


Abstract
For cyber-physical systems, real-time virtualization optimizes the hardware utilization by consolidating multiple systems into the same platform, while satisfying the timing constraints of their real-time tasks. This paper considers virtualization based on unikernels, i.e., single address space kernels usually constructed by using library operating systems. Each unikernel is a guest operating system in the virtualization and hosts a single real-time task. We consider deferrable servers in the virtualization platform to schedule the unikernel-based guest operating systems and analyze the worst-case response time of a sporadic real-time task under such a virtualization architecture. Throughout synthesized tasksets, we empirically show that our analysis outperforms the restated analysis derived from the state-of-the-art, which is based on Real-Time Calculus. Furthermore, we provide insights on implementation-specific issues and offer evidence that the proposed scheduling architecture can be effectively implemented on top of the Xen hypervisor while incurring acceptable overhead.

Cite as

Kuan-Hsun Chen, Mario Günzel, Boguslaw Jablkowski, Markus Buschhoff, and Jian-Jia Chen. Unikernel-Based Real-Time Virtualization Under Deferrable Servers: Analysis and Realization. In 34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 231, pp. 6:1-6:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2022.6,
  author =	{Chen, Kuan-Hsun and G\"{u}nzel, Mario and Jablkowski, Boguslaw and Buschhoff, Markus and Chen, Jian-Jia},
  title =	{{Unikernel-Based Real-Time Virtualization Under Deferrable Servers: Analysis and Realization}},
  booktitle =	{34th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2022)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-239-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{231},
  editor =	{Maggio, Martina},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2022.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163239},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2022.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Unikernel, Virtualization, Reservation Servers, Deferrable Servers, Cyber-Physical Systems, Real-Time Systems}
}
Document
Offloading Safety- and Mission-Critical Tasks via Unreliable Connections

Authors: Lea Schönberger, Georg von der Brüggen, Kuan-Hsun Chen, Benjamin Sliwa, Hazem Youssef, Aswin Karthik Ramachandran Venkatapathy, Christian Wietfeld, Michael ten Hompel, and Jian-Jia Chen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 165, 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020)


Abstract
For many cyber-physical systems, e.g., IoT systems and autonomous vehicles, offloading workload to auxiliary processing units has become crucial. However, since this approach highly depends on network connectivity and responsiveness, typically only non-critical tasks are offloaded, which have less strict timing requirements than critical tasks. In this work, we provide two protocols allowing to offload critical and non-critical tasks likewise, while providing different service levels for non-critical tasks in the event of an unsuccessful offloading operation, depending on the respective system requirements. We analyze the worst-case timing behavior of the local cyber-physical system and, based on these analyses, we provide a sufficient schedulability test for each of the proposed protocols. In the course of comprehensive experiments, we show that our protocols have reasonable acceptance ratios under the provided schedulability tests. Moreover, we demonstrate that the system behavior under our proposed protocols is strongly dependent on probability of unsuccessful offloading operations, the percentage of critical tasks in the system, and the amount of offloaded workload.

Cite as

Lea Schönberger, Georg von der Brüggen, Kuan-Hsun Chen, Benjamin Sliwa, Hazem Youssef, Aswin Karthik Ramachandran Venkatapathy, Christian Wietfeld, Michael ten Hompel, and Jian-Jia Chen. Offloading Safety- and Mission-Critical Tasks via Unreliable Connections. In 32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 165, pp. 18:1-18:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{schonberger_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.18,
  author =	{Sch\"{o}nberger, Lea and von der Br\"{u}ggen, Georg and Chen, Kuan-Hsun and Sliwa, Benjamin and Youssef, Hazem and Ramachandran Venkatapathy, Aswin Karthik and Wietfeld, Christian and ten Hompel, Michael and Chen, Jian-Jia},
  title =	{{Offloading Safety- and Mission-Critical Tasks via Unreliable Connections}},
  booktitle =	{32nd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2020)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-152-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{165},
  editor =	{V\"{o}lp, Marcus},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-123811},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2020.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: internet of things, cyber-physical systems, real-time, mixed-criticality, self-suspension, computation offloading, scheduling, communication}
}
Document
Efficiently Approximating the Probability of Deadline Misses in Real-Time Systems

Authors: Georg von der Brüggen, Nico Piatkowski, Kuan-Hsun Chen, Jian-Jia Chen, and Katharina Morik

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 106, 30th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2018)


Abstract
This paper explores the probability of deadline misses for a set of constrained-deadline sporadic soft real-time tasks on uniprocessor platforms. We explore two directions to evaluate the probability whether a job of the task under analysis can finish its execution at (or before) a testing time point t. One approach is based on analytical upper bounds that can be efficiently computed in polynomial time at the price of precision loss for each testing point, derived from the well-known Hoeffding's inequality and the well-known Bernstein's inequality. Another approach convolutes the probability efficiently over multinomial distributions, exploiting a series of state space reduction techniques, i.e., pruning without any loss of precision, and approximations via unifying equivalent classes with a bounded loss of precision. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches in a series of evaluations. Distinct from the convolution-based methods in the literature, which suffer from the high computation demand and are applicable only to task sets with a few tasks, our approaches can scale reasonably without losing much precision in terms of the derived probability of deadline misses.

Cite as

Georg von der Brüggen, Nico Piatkowski, Kuan-Hsun Chen, Jian-Jia Chen, and Katharina Morik. Efficiently Approximating the Probability of Deadline Misses in Real-Time Systems. In 30th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 106, pp. 6:1-6:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


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@InProceedings{vonderbruggen_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2018.6,
  author =	{von der Br\"{u}ggen, Georg and Piatkowski, Nico and Chen, Kuan-Hsun and Chen, Jian-Jia and Morik, Katharina},
  title =	{{Efficiently Approximating the Probability of Deadline Misses in Real-Time Systems}},
  booktitle =	{30th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2018)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-075-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{106},
  editor =	{Altmeyer, Sebastian},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2018.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-89978},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2018.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: deadline miss probability, multinomial-based approach, analytical bound}
}
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