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**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 65, 18th Workshop on Algorithmic Approaches for Transportation Modelling, Optimization, and Systems (ATMOS 2018)

We develop a fast method to compute an optimal robust shortest path in large networks like road networks, a fundamental problem in traffic and logistics under uncertainty.
In the robust shortest path problem we are given an s-t-graph D(V,A) and for each arc a nominal length c(a) and a maximal increase d(a) of its length. We consider all scenarios in which for the increased lengths c(a) + bar{d}(a) we have bar{d}(a) <= d(a) and sum_{a in A} (bar{d}(a)/d(a)) <= Gamma. Each path is measured by the length in its worst-case scenario. A classic result [Bertsimas and Sim, 2003] minimizes this path length by solving (|A| + 1)-many shortest path problems. Easily, (|A| + 1) can be replaced by |Theta|, where Theta is the set of all different values d(a) and 0. Still, the approach remains impractical for large graphs.
Using the monotonicity of a part of the objective we devise a Divide and Conquer method to evaluate significantly fewer values of Theta. This methods generalizes to binary linear robust problems. Specifically for shortest paths we derive a lower bound to speed-up the Divide and Conquer of Theta. The bound is based on carefully using previous shortest path computations. We combine the approach with non-preprocessing based acceleration techniques for Dijkstra adapted to the robust case.
In a computational study we document the value of different accelerations tried in the algorithm engineering process. We also give an approximation scheme for the robust shortest path problem which computes a (1 + epsilon)-approximate solution requiring O(log(d^ / (1 + epsilon))) computations of the nominal problem where d^ := max d(A) / min (d(A)\{0}).

Christoph Hansknecht, Alexander Richter, and Sebastian Stiller. Fast Robust Shortest Path Computations. In 18th Workshop on Algorithmic Approaches for Transportation Modelling, Optimization, and Systems (ATMOS 2018). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 65, pp. 5:1-5:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{hansknecht_et_al:OASIcs.ATMOS.2018.5, author = {Hansknecht, Christoph and Richter, Alexander and Stiller, Sebastian}, title = {{Fast Robust Shortest Path Computations}}, booktitle = {18th Workshop on Algorithmic Approaches for Transportation Modelling, Optimization, and Systems (ATMOS 2018)}, pages = {5:1--5:21}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-096-5}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2018}, volume = {65}, editor = {Bornd\"{o}rfer, Ralf and Storandt, Sabine}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.ATMOS.2018.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-97100}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.ATMOS.2018.5}, annote = {Keywords: Graph Algorithms, Shortest Paths, Robust Optimization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 28, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)

We study the existence of approximate pure Nash equilibria in weighted congestion games and develop techniques to obtain approximate potential functions that prove the existence of alpha-approximate pure Nash equilibria and the convergence of alpha-improvement steps. Specifically, we show how to obtain upper bounds for approximation factor alpha for a given class of cost functions. For example for concave cost functions the factor is at most 3/2, for quadratic cost functions it is at most 4/3, and for polynomial cost functions of maximal degree d it is at at most d + 1. For games with two players we obtain tight bounds which are as small as for example 1.054 in the case of quadratic cost functions.

Christoph Hansknecht, Max Klimm, and Alexander Skopalik. Approximate Pure Nash Equilibria in Weighted Congestion Games. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 28, pp. 242-257, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{hansknecht_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.242, author = {Hansknecht, Christoph and Klimm, Max and Skopalik, Alexander}, title = {{Approximate Pure Nash Equilibria in Weighted Congestion Games}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2014)}, pages = {242--257}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-74-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {28}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Devanur, Nikhil R. and Moore, Cristopher}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.242}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-47005}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2014.242}, annote = {Keywords: Congestion game, Pure Nash equilibrium, Approximate equilibrium, Existence, Potential function} }

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