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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 138, 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)

Can we efficiently compute optimal solutions to instances of a hard problem from optimal solutions to neighboring (i.e., locally modified) instances? For example, can we efficiently compute an optimal coloring for a graph from optimal colorings for all one-edge-deleted subgraphs? Studying such questions not only gives detailed insight into the structure of the problem itself, but also into the complexity of related problems; most notably graph theory’s core notion of critical graphs (e.g., graphs whose chromatic number decreases under deletion of an arbitrary edge) and the complexity-theoretic notion of minimality problems (also called criticality problems, e.g., recognizing graphs that become 3-colorable when an arbitrary edge is deleted).
We focus on two prototypical graph problems, Colorability and Vertex Cover. For example, we show that it is NP-hard to compute an optimal coloring for a graph from optimal colorings for all its one-vertex-deleted subgraphs, and that this remains true even when optimal solutions for all one-edge-deleted subgraphs are given. In contrast, computing an optimal coloring from all (or even just two) one-edge-added supergraphs is in P. We observe that Vertex Cover exhibits a remarkably different behavior, demonstrating the power of our model to delineate problems from each other more precisely on a structural level.
Moreover, we provide a number of new complexity results for minimality and criticality problems. For example, we prove that Minimal-3-UnColorability is complete for DP (differences of NP sets), which was previously known only for the more amenable case of deleting vertices rather than edges. For Vertex Cover, we show that recognizing beta-vertex-critical graphs is complete for Theta_2^p (parallel access to NP), obtaining the first completeness result for a criticality problem for this class.

Elisabet Burjons, Fabian Frei, Edith Hemaspaandra, Dennis Komm, and David Wehner. Finding Optimal Solutions With Neighborly Help. In 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 138, pp. 78:1-78:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{burjons_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.78, author = {Burjons, Elisabet and Frei, Fabian and Hemaspaandra, Edith and Komm, Dennis and Wehner, David}, title = {{Finding Optimal Solutions With Neighborly Help}}, booktitle = {44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)}, pages = {78:1--78:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-117-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {138}, editor = {Rossmanith, Peter and Heggernes, Pinar and Katoen, Joost-Pieter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.78}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110221}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.78}, annote = {Keywords: Critical Graphs, Computational Complexity, Structural Self-Reducibility, Minimality Problems, Colorability, Vertex Cover, Satisfiability, Reoptimization, Advice} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 58, 41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016)

Several well-studied graph problems aim to select a largest (or smallest) induced subgraph with a given property of the input graph. Examples include maximum independent set, maximum planar graph, maximum clique, minimum feedback vertex set, and many others. In online versions of these problems, the vertices of the graph are presented in an adversarial order, and with each vertex, the online algorithm must irreversibly decide whether to include it into the constructed subgraph, based only on the subgraph induced by the vertices presented so far. We study the properties that are common to all these problems by investigating a generalized problem: for an arbitrary but fixed hereditary property pi, find some maximal induced subgraph having pi. We investigate this problem from the point of view of advice complexity, i.e., we ask how some additional information about the yet unrevealed parts of the input can influence the solution quality. We evaluate the information in a quantitative way by considering the best possible advice of given size that describes the unknown input. Using a result from Boyar et al. [STACS 2015, LIPIcs 30], we give a tight trade-off relationship stating that, for inputs of length n, roughly n/c bits of advice are both needed and sufficient to obtain a solution with competitive ratio c, regardless of the choice of pi, for any c (possibly a function of n). This complements the results from Bartal et al. [SIAM Journal on Computing 36(2), 2006] stating that, without any advice, even a randomized algorithm cannot achieve a competitive ratio better than Omega(n^{1-log_{4}3-o(1)}). Surprisingly, for a given cohereditary property pi and the objective to find a minimum subgraph having pi, the advice complexity varies significantly with the choice of pi. We also consider a preemptive online model, inspired by some applications mainly in networking and scheduling, where the decision of the algorithm is not completely irreversible. In particular, the algorithm may discard some vertices previously assigned to the constructed set, but discarded vertices cannot be reinserted into the set. We show that, for the maximum induced subgraph problem, preemption does not significantly help by giving a lower bound of Omega(n/(c^2log c)) on the bits of advice that are needed to obtain
competitive ratio c, where c is any increasing function bounded from above by sqrt(n/log n). We also give a linear lower bound for c close to 1.

Dennis Komm, Rastislav Královic, Richard Královic, and Christian Kudahl. Advice Complexity of the Online Induced Subgraph Problem. In 41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 58, pp. 59:1-59:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{komm_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.59, author = {Komm, Dennis and Kr\'{a}lovic, Rastislav and Kr\'{a}lovic, Richard and Kudahl, Christian}, title = {{Advice Complexity of the Online Induced Subgraph Problem}}, booktitle = {41st International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2016)}, pages = {59:1--59:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-016-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {58}, editor = {Faliszewski, Piotr and Muscholl, Anca and Niedermeier, Rolf}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.59}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-64713}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2016.59}, annote = {Keywords: online algorithms, advice complexity, induced subgraph problem} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 25, 31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014)

We study the relationship between the competitive ratio and the tail distribution of randomized online problems. To this end, we define a broad class of online problems that includes some of the well-studied problems like paging, k-server and metrical task systems on finite metrics, and show that for these problems it is possible to obtain, given an algorithm with constant expected competitive ratio, another algorithm that achieves the same solution quality up to an arbitrarily small constant error with high probability; the "high probability" statement is in terms of the optimal cost. Furthermore, we show that our assumptions are tight in the sense that removing any of them allows for a counterexample to the theorem.

Dennis Komm, Rastislav Královic, Richard Královic, and Tobias Mömke. Randomized Online Algorithms with High Probability Guarantees. In 31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 25, pp. 470-481, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{komm_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2014.470, author = {Komm, Dennis and Kr\'{a}lovic, Rastislav and Kr\'{a}lovic, Richard and M\"{o}mke, Tobias}, title = {{Randomized Online Algorithms with High Probability Guarantees}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2014)}, pages = {470--481}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-65-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {25}, editor = {Mayr, Ernst W. and Portier, Natacha}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2014.470}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-44803}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2014.470}, annote = {Keywords: Online Algorithms, Randomization, High Probability} }

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