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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)

A central open problem in complexity theory concerns the question of whether all efficient randomized algorithms can be simulated by efficient deterministic algorithms. The celebrated "hardness v.s. randomness” paradigm pioneered by Blum-Micali (SIAM JoC’84), Yao (FOCS’84) and Nisan-Wigderson (JCSS’94) presents hardness assumptions under which e.g., prBPP = prP (so-called "high-end derandomization), or prBPP ⊆ prSUBEXP (so-called "low-end derandomization), and more generally, under which prBPP ⊆ prDTIME(𝒞) where 𝒞 is a "nice" class (closed under composition with a polynomial), but these hardness assumptions are not known to also be necessary for such derandomization.
In this work, following the recent work by Chen and Tell (FOCS’21) that considers "almost-all-input" hardness of a function f (i.e., hardness of computing f on more than a finite number of inputs), we consider "almost-all-input" leakage-resilient hardness of a function f - that is, hardness of computing f(x) even given, say, √|x| bits of leakage of f(x). We show that leakage-resilient hardness characterizes derandomization of prBPP (i.e., gives a both necessary and sufficient condition for derandomization), both in the high-end and in the low-end setting.
In more detail, we show that there exists a constant c such that for every function T, the following are equivalent:
- prBPP ⊆ prDTIME(poly(T(poly(n))));
- Existence of a poly(T(poly(n)))-time computable function f :{0,1}ⁿ → {0,1}ⁿ that is almost-all-input leakage-resilient hard with respect to n^c-time probabilistic algorithms. As far as we know, this is the first assumption that characterizes derandomization in both the low-end and the high-end regime.
Additionally, our characterization naturally extends also to derandomization of prMA, and also to average-case derandomization, by appropriately weakening the requirements on the function f. In particular, for the case of average-case (a.k.a. "effective") derandomization, we no longer require the function to be almost-all-input hard, but simply satisfy the more standard notion of average-case leakage-resilient hardness (w.r.t., every samplable distribution), whereas for derandomization of prMA, we instead consider leakage-resilience for relations.

Yanyi Liu and Rafael Pass. Leakage-Resilient Hardness vs Randomness. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 32:1-32:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{liu_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.32, author = {Liu, Yanyi and Pass, Rafael}, title = {{Leakage-Resilient Hardness vs Randomness}}, booktitle = {38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)}, pages = {32:1--32:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-282-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {264}, editor = {Ta-Shma, Amnon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183022}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.32}, annote = {Keywords: Derandomization, Leakage-Resilient Hardness} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)

A central open problem in complexity theory concerns the question of whether all efficient randomized algorithms can be simulated by efficient deterministic algorithms. We consider this problem in the context of promise problems (i.e,. the prBPP v.s. prP problem) and show that for all sufficiently large constants c, the following are equivalent:
- prBPP = prP.
- For every BPTIME(n^c) algorithm M, and every sufficiently long z ∈ {0,1}ⁿ, there exists some x ∈ {0,1}ⁿ such that M fails to decide whether Kt(x∣z) is "very large" (≥ n-1) or "very small" (≤ O(log n)). where Kt(x∣z) denotes the Levin-Kolmogorov complexity of x conditioned on z. As far as we are aware, this yields the first full characterization of when prBPP = prP through the hardness of some class of problems. Previous hardness assumptions used for derandomization only provide a one-sided implication.

Yanyi Liu and Rafael Pass. Characterizing Derandomization Through Hardness of Levin-Kolmogorov Complexity. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 35:1-35:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{liu_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.35, author = {Liu, Yanyi and Pass, Rafael}, title = {{Characterizing Derandomization Through Hardness of Levin-Kolmogorov Complexity}}, booktitle = {37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)}, pages = {35:1--35:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-241-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {234}, editor = {Lovett, Shachar}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165975}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.35}, annote = {Keywords: Derandomization, Kolmogorov Complexity, Hitting Set Generators} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)

We present the first natural NP-complete problem whose average-case hardness w.r.t. the uniform distribution over instances is equivalent to the existence of one-way functions (OWFs). The problem, which originated in the 1960s, is the Conditional Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity Problem: let K^t(x∣z) be the length of the shortest "program" that, given the "auxiliary input" z, outputs the string x within time t(|x|), and let McK^tP[ζ] be the set of strings (x,z,k) where |z| = ζ(|x|), |k| = log |x| and K^t(x∣z) < k, where, for our purposes, a "program" is defined as a RAM machine.
Our main result shows that for every polynomial t(n) ≥ n², there exists some polynomial ζ such that McK^tP[ζ] is NP-complete. We additionally extend the result of Liu-Pass (FOCS'20) to show that for every polynomial t(n) ≥ 1.1n, and every polynomial ζ(⋅), mild average-case hardness of McK^tP[ζ] is equivalent to the existence of OWFs. Taken together, these results provide the following crisp characterization of what is required to base OWFs on NP ⊈ BPP:
There exists concrete polynomials t,ζ such that "Basing OWFs on NP ⊈ BPP" is equivalent to providing a "worst-case to (mild) average-case reduction for McK^tP[ζ]".
In other words, the "holy-grail" of Cryptography (i.e., basing OWFs on NP ⊈ BPP) is equivalent to a basic question in algorithmic information theory.
As an independent contribution, we show that our NP-completeness result can be used to shed new light on the feasibility of the polynomial-time bounded symmetry of information assertion (Kolmogorov'68).

Yanyi Liu and Rafael Pass. On One-Way Functions from NP-Complete Problems. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 36:1-36:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{liu_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.36, author = {Liu, Yanyi and Pass, Rafael}, title = {{On One-Way Functions from NP-Complete Problems}}, booktitle = {37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)}, pages = {36:1--36:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-241-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {234}, editor = {Lovett, Shachar}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.36}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165981}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.36}, annote = {Keywords: One-way Functions, NP-Completeness, Kolmogorov Complexity} }

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