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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 317, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)

Determining the approximate degree composition for Boolean functions remains a significant unsolved problem in Boolean function complexity. In recent decades, researchers have concentrated on proving that approximate degree composes for special types of inner and outer functions. An important and extensively studied class of functions are the recursive functions, i.e. functions obtained by composing a base function with itself a number of times. Let h^d denote the standard d-fold composition of the base function h. The main result of this work is to show that the approximate degree composes if either of the following conditions holds:
- The outer function f:{0,1}ⁿ → {0,1} is a recursive function of the form h^d, with h being any base function and d = Ω(log log n).
- The inner function is a recursive function of the form h^d, with h being any constant arity base function (other than AND and OR) and d = Ω(log log n), where n is the arity of the outer function.
In terms of proof techniques, we first observe that the lower bound for composition can be obtained by introducing majority in between the inner and the outer functions. We then show that majority can be efficiently eliminated if the inner or outer function is a recursive function.

Sourav Chakraborty, Chandrima Kayal, Rajat Mittal, Manaswi Paraashar, and Nitin Saurabh. Approximate Degree Composition for Recursive Functions. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 317, pp. 71:1-71:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.71, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Kayal, Chandrima and Mittal, Rajat and Paraashar, Manaswi and Saurabh, Nitin}, title = {{Approximate Degree Composition for Recursive Functions}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)}, pages = {71:1--71:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-348-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {317}, editor = {Kumar, Amit and Ron-Zewi, Noga}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.71}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-210642}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.71}, annote = {Keywords: Approximate degree, Boolean function, Composition theorem} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

For any Boolean functions f and g, the question whether R(f∘g) = Θ̃(R(f) ⋅ R(g)), is known as the composition question for the randomized query complexity. Similarly, the composition question for the approximate degree asks whether deg̃(f∘g) = Θ̃(deg̃(f)⋅deg̃(g)). These questions are two of the most important and well-studied problems in the field of analysis of Boolean functions, and yet we are far from answering them satisfactorily.
It is known that the measures compose if one assumes various properties of the outer function f (or inner function g). This paper extends the class of outer functions for which R and deg̃ compose.
A recent landmark result (Ben-David and Blais, 2020) showed that R(f∘g) = Ω(noisyR(f)⋅ R(g)). This implies that composition holds whenever noisyR(f) = Θ̃(R(f)). We show two results:
1. When R(f) = Θ(n), then noisyR(f) = Θ(R(f)). In other words, composition holds whenever the randomized query complexity of the outer function is full.
2. If R composes with respect to an outer function, then noisyR also composes with respect to the same outer function. On the other hand, no result of the type deg̃(f∘g) = Ω(M(f) ⋅ deg̃(g)) (for some non-trivial complexity measure M(⋅)) was known to the best of our knowledge. We prove that deg̃(f∘g) = Ω̃(√{bs(f)} ⋅ deg̃(g)), where bs(f) is the block sensitivity of f. This implies that deg̃ composes when deg̃(f) is asymptotically equal to √{bs(f)}.
It is already known that both R and deg̃ compose when the outer function is symmetric. We also extend these results to weaker notions of symmetry with respect to the outer function.

Sourav Chakraborty, Chandrima Kayal, Rajat Mittal, Manaswi Paraashar, Swagato Sanyal, and Nitin Saurabh. On the Composition of Randomized Query Complexity and Approximate Degree. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 63:1-63:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.63, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Kayal, Chandrima and Mittal, Rajat and Paraashar, Manaswi and Sanyal, Swagato and Saurabh, Nitin}, title = {{On the Composition of Randomized Query Complexity and Approximate Degree}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {63:1--63:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.63}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188883}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.63}, annote = {Keywords: Approximate degree, Boolean functions, Composition Theorem, Partial functions, Randomized Query Complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

We introduce and study Certificate Game complexity, a measure of complexity based on the probability of winning a game where two players are given inputs with different function values and are asked to output some index i such that x_i≠ y_i, in a zero-communication setting.
We give upper and lower bounds for private coin, public coin, shared entanglement and non-signaling strategies, and give some separations. We show that complexity in the public coin model is upper bounded by Randomized query and Certificate complexity. On the other hand, it is lower bounded by fractional and randomized certificate complexity, making it a good candidate to prove strong lower bounds on randomized query complexity. Complexity in the private coin model is bounded from below by zero-error randomized query complexity. The quantum measure highlights an interesting and surprising difference between classical and quantum query models. Whereas the public coin certificate game complexity is bounded from above by randomized query complexity, the quantum certificate game complexity can be quadratically larger than quantum query complexity. We use non-signaling, a notion from quantum information, to give a lower bound of n on the quantum certificate game complexity of the OR function, whose quantum query complexity is Θ(√n), then go on to show that this "non-signaling bottleneck" applies to all functions with high sensitivity, block sensitivity or fractional block sensitivity.
We also consider the single-bit version of certificate games, where the inputs of the two players are restricted to having Hamming distance 1. We prove that the single-bit version of certificate game complexity with shared randomness is equal to sensitivity up to constant factors, thus giving a new characterization of sensitivity. On the other hand, the single-bit version of certificate game complexity with private randomness is equal to λ², where λ is the spectral sensitivity.

Sourav Chakraborty, Anna Gál, Sophie Laplante, Rajat Mittal, and Anupa Sunny. Certificate Games. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 32:1-32:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.32, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and G\'{a}l, Anna and Laplante, Sophie and Mittal, Rajat and Sunny, Anupa}, title = {{Certificate Games}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {32:1--32:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175353}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.32}, annote = {Keywords: block sensitivity, boolean function complexity, certificate complexity, query complexity, sensitivity, zero-communication two-player games} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

Chang’s lemma (Duke Mathematical Journal, 2002) is a classical result in mathematics, with applications spanning across additive combinatorics, combinatorial number theory, analysis of Boolean functions, communication complexity and algorithm design. For a Boolean function f that takes values in {-1, 1} let r(f) denote its Fourier rank (i.e., the dimension of the span of its Fourier support). For each positive threshold t, Chang’s lemma provides a lower bound on δ(f) := Pr[f(x) = -1] in terms of the dimension of the span of its characters with Fourier coefficients of magnitude at least 1/t. In this work we examine the tightness of Chang’s lemma with respect to the following three natural settings of the threshold:
- the Fourier sparsity of f, denoted k(f),
- the Fourier max-supp-entropy of f, denoted k'(f), defined to be the maximum value of the reciprocal of the absolute value of a non-zero Fourier coefficient,
- the Fourier max-rank-entropy of f, denoted k''(f), defined to be the minimum t such that characters whose coefficients are at least 1/t in magnitude span a r(f)-dimensional space. In this work we prove new lower bounds on δ(f) in terms of the above measures. One of our lower bounds, δ(f) = Ω(r(f)²/(k(f) log² k(f))), subsumes and refines the previously best known upper bound r(f) = O(√{k(f)}log k(f)) on r(f) in terms of k(f) by Sanyal (Theory of Computing, 2019). We improve upon this bound and show r(f) = O(√{k(f)δ(f)}log k(f)). Another lower bound, δ(f) = Ω(r(f)/(k''(f) log k(f))), is based on our improvement of a bound by Chattopadhyay, Hatami, Lovett and Tal (ITCS, 2019) on the sum of absolute values of level-1 Fourier coefficients in terms of 𝔽₂-degree. We further show that Chang’s lemma for the above-mentioned choices of the threshold is asymptotically outperformed by our bounds for most settings of the parameters involved.
Next, we show that our bounds are tight for a wide range of the parameters involved, by constructing functions witnessing their tightness. All the functions we construct are modifications of the Addressing function, where we replace certain input variables by suitable functions. Our final contribution is to construct Boolean functions f for which our lower bounds asymptotically match δ(f), and for any choice of the threshold t, the lower bound obtained from Chang’s lemma is asymptotically smaller than δ(f).
Our results imply more refined deterministic one-way communication complexity upper bounds for XOR functions. Given the wide-ranging application of Chang’s lemma to areas like additive combinatorics, learning theory and communication complexity, we strongly feel that our refinements of Chang’s lemma will find many more applications.

Sourav Chakraborty, Nikhil S. Mande, Rajat Mittal, Tulasimohan Molli, Manaswi Paraashar, and Swagato Sanyal. Tight Chang’s-Lemma-Type Bounds for Boolean Functions. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 10:1-10:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.10, author = {Chakraborty, Sourav and Mande, Nikhil S. and Mittal, Rajat and Molli, Tulasimohan and Paraashar, Manaswi and Sanyal, Swagato}, title = {{Tight Chang’s-Lemma-Type Bounds for Boolean Functions}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {10:1--10:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155215}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.10}, annote = {Keywords: Analysis of Boolean functions, Chang’s lemma, Parity decision trees, Fourier dimension} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)

Finding an irreducible factor, of a polynomial f(x) modulo a prime p, is not known to be in deterministic polynomial time. Though there is such a classical algorithm that counts the number of irreducible factors of f mod p. We can ask the same question modulo prime-powers p^k. The irreducible factors of f mod p^k blow up exponentially in number; making it hard to describe them. Can we count those irreducible factors mod p^k that remain irreducible mod p? These are called basic-irreducible. A simple example is in f=x^2+px mod p^2; it has p many basic-irreducible factors. Also note that, x^2+p mod p^2 is irreducible but not basic-irreducible!
We give an algorithm to count the number of basic-irreducible factors of f mod p^k in deterministic poly(deg(f),k log p)-time. This solves the open questions posed in (Cheng et al, ANTS'18 & Kopp et al, Math.Comp.'19). In particular, we are counting roots mod p^k; which gives the first deterministic poly-time algorithm to compute Igusa zeta function of f. Also, our algorithm efficiently partitions the set of all basic-irreducible factors (possibly exponential) into merely deg(f)-many disjoint sets, using a compact tree data structure and split ideals.

Ashish Dwivedi, Rajat Mittal, and Nitin Saxena. Counting Basic-Irreducible Factors Mod p^k in Deterministic Poly-Time and p-Adic Applications. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 15:1-15:29, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{dwivedi_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.15, author = {Dwivedi, Ashish and Mittal, Rajat and Saxena, Nitin}, title = {{Counting Basic-Irreducible Factors Mod p^k in Deterministic Poly-Time and p-Adic Applications}}, booktitle = {34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)}, pages = {15:1--15:29}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-116-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {137}, editor = {Shpilka, Amir}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108373}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.15}, annote = {Keywords: deterministic, root, counting, modulo, prime-power, tree, basic irreducible, unramified} }

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