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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

We show that the VC-dimension of a graph can be computed in time n^{⌈log d+1⌉} d^{O(d)}, where d is the degeneracy of the input graph. The core idea of our algorithm is a data structure to efficiently query the number of vertices that see a specific subset of vertices inside of a (small) query set. The construction of this data structure takes time O(d2^dn), afterwards queries can be computed efficiently using fast Möbius inversion.
This data structure turns out to be useful for a range of tasks, especially for finding bipartite patterns in degenerate graphs, and we outline an efficient algorithm for counting the number of times specific patterns occur in a graph. The largest factor in the running time of this algorithm is O(n^c), where c is a parameter of the pattern we call its left covering number.
Concrete applications of this algorithm include counting the number of (non-induced) bicliques in linear time, the number of co-matchings in quadratic time, as well as a constant-factor approximation of the ladder index in linear time.
Finally, we supplement our theoretical results with several implementations and run experiments on more than 200 real-world datasets - the largest of which has 8 million edges - where we obtain interesting insights into the VC-dimension of real-world networks.

Pål Grønås Drange, Patrick Greaves, Irene Muzi, and Felix Reidl. Computing Complexity Measures of Degenerate Graphs. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 14:1-14:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{drange_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.14, author = {Drange, P\r{a}l Gr{\o}n\r{a}s and Greaves, Patrick and Muzi, Irene and Reidl, Felix}, title = {{Computing Complexity Measures of Degenerate Graphs}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {14:1--14:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194333}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.14}, annote = {Keywords: vc-dimension, datastructure, degeneracy, enumerating} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

The celebrated Erdős-Pósa theorem states that every undirected graph that does not admit a family of k vertex-disjoint cycles contains a feedback vertex set (a set of vertices hitting all cycles in the graph) of size O(k log k). After being known for long as Younger’s conjecture, a similar statement for directed graphs has been proven in 1996 by Reed, Robertson, Seymour, and Thomas. However, in their proof, the dependency of the size of the feedback vertex set on the size of vertex-disjoint cycle packing is not elementary.
We show that if we compare the size of a minimum feedback vertex set in a directed graph with quarter-integral cycle packing number, we obtain a polynomial bound. More precisely, we show that if in a directed graph G there is no family of k cycles such that every vertex of G is in at most four of the cycles, then there exists a feedback vertex set in G of size O(k^4). On the way there we prove a more general result about quarter-integral packing of subgraphs of high directed treewidth: for every pair of positive integers a and b, if a directed graph G has directed treewidth Omega(a^6 b^8 log^2(ab)), then one can find in G a family of a subgraphs, each of directed treewidth at least b, such that every vertex of G is in at most four subgraphs.

Tomáš Masařík, Irene Muzi, Marcin Pilipczuk, Paweł Rzążewski, and Manuel Sorge. Packing Directed Circuits Quarter-Integrally. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 72:1-72:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{masarik_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.72, author = {Masa\v{r}{\'\i}k, Tom\'{a}\v{s} and Muzi, Irene and Pilipczuk, Marcin and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l} and Sorge, Manuel}, title = {{Packing Directed Circuits Quarter-Integrally}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {72:1--72:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.72}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111938}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.72}, annote = {Keywords: Directed graphs, graph algorithms, linkage, Erd\H{o}s–P\'{o}sa property} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 126, 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)

The notions of bounded expansion [Nešetřil and Ossona de Mendez, 2008] and nowhere denseness [Nešetřil and Ossona de Mendez, 2011], introduced by Nešetřil and Ossona de Mendez as structural measures for undirected graphs, have been applied very successfully in algorithmic graph theory. We study the corresponding notions of directed bounded expansion and nowhere crownfulness on directed graphs, introduced by Kreutzer and Tazari [Kreutzer and Tazari, 2012]. The classes of directed graphs having those properties are very general classes of sparse directed graphs, as they include, on one hand, all classes of directed graphs whose underlying undirected class has bounded expansion, such as planar, bounded-genus, and H-minor-free graphs, and on the other hand, they also contain classes whose underlying undirected class is not even nowhere dense. We show that many of the algorithmic tools that were developed for undirected bounded expansion classes can, with some care, also be applied in their directed counterparts, and thereby we highlight a rich algorithmic structure theory of directed bounded expansion and nowhere crownful classes.

Stephan Kreutzer, Irene Muzi, Patrice Ossona de Mendez, Roman Rabinovich, and Sebastian Siebertz. Algorithmic Properties of Sparse Digraphs. In 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 126, pp. 46:1-46:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{kreutzer_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2019.46, author = {Kreutzer, Stephan and Muzi, Irene and Ossona de Mendez, Patrice and Rabinovich, Roman and Siebertz, Sebastian}, title = {{Algorithmic Properties of Sparse Digraphs}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)}, pages = {46:1--46:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-100-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {126}, editor = {Niedermeier, Rolf and Paul, Christophe}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.46}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102859}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.46}, annote = {Keywords: Directed graphs, graph algorithms, parameterized complexity, approximation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 83, 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)

We study the computational complexity of identifying dense substructures, namely r/2-shallow topological minors and r-subdivisions. Of particular interest is the case r = 1, when these substructures correspond to very localized relaxations of subgraphs. Since Densest Subgraph can be solved in polynomial time, we ask whether these slight relaxations also admit efficient algorithms.
In the following, we provide a negative answer: Dense r/2-Shallow Topological Minor and Dense r-Subdivsion are already NP-hard for r = 1 in very sparse graphs. Further, they do not admit algorithms with running time 2^(o(tw^2)) n^O(1) when parameterized by the treewidth of the input graph for r > 2 unless ETH fails.

Irene Muzi, Michael P. O'Brien, Felix Reidl, and Blair D. Sullivan. Being Even Slightly Shallow Makes Life Hard. In 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 83, pp. 79:1-79:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{muzi_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.79, author = {Muzi, Irene and O'Brien, Michael P. and Reidl, Felix and Sullivan, Blair D.}, title = {{Being Even Slightly Shallow Makes Life Hard}}, booktitle = {42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)}, pages = {79:1--79:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-046-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {83}, editor = {Larsen, Kim G. and Bodlaender, Hans L. and Raskin, Jean-Francois}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.79}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-81257}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.79}, annote = {Keywords: Topological minors, NP Completeness, Treewidth, ETH, FPT algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 87, 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)

We study the half-integral k-Directed Disjoint Paths Problem (1/2 kDDPP) in highly strongly connected digraphs. The integral kDDPP is NP-complete even when restricted to instances where k=2, and the input graph is L-strongly connected, for any L >= 1. We show that when the integrality condition is relaxed to allow each vertex to be used in two paths, the problem becomes efficiently solvable in highly connected digraphs (even with k as part of the input).
Specifically, we show that there is an absolute constant c such that for each k >= 2 there exists L(k) such that 1/2 kDDPP is solvable in time O(|V(G)|^c) for a L(k)-strongly connected directed graph G. As the function L(k) grows rather quickly, we also show that 1/2 kDDPP is solvable in time O(|V(G)|^{f(k)}) in (36k^3+2k)-strongly connected directed graphs. We show that for each epsilon<1, deciding half-integral feasibility of kDDPP instances is NP-complete when k is given as part of the input, even when restricted to graphs with strong connectivity epsilon k.

Katherine Edwards, Irene Muzi, and Paul Wollan. Half-Integral Linkages in Highly Connected Directed Graphs. In 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 87, pp. 36:1-36:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{edwards_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2017.36, author = {Edwards, Katherine and Muzi, Irene and Wollan, Paul}, title = {{Half-Integral Linkages in Highly Connected Directed Graphs}}, booktitle = {25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)}, pages = {36:1--36:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-049-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {87}, editor = {Pruhs, Kirk and Sohler, Christian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.36}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-78769}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.36}, annote = {Keywords: linkage, directed graph, treewidth} }

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