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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)

Directed Token Sliding asks, given a directed graph and two sets of pairwise nonadjacent vertices, whether one can reach from one set to the other by repeatedly applying a local operation that exchanges a vertex in the current set with one of its out-neighbors, while keeping the nonadjacency. It can be seen as a reconfiguration process where a token is placed on each vertex in the current set, and the local operation slides a token along an arc respecting its direction. Previously, such a problem was extensively studied on undirected graphs, where the edges have no directions and thus the local operation is symmetric. Directed Token Sliding is a generalization of its undirected variant since an undirected edge can be simulated by two arcs of opposite directions.
In this paper, we initiate the algorithmic study of Directed Token Sliding. We first observe that the problem is PSPACE-complete even if we forbid parallel arcs in opposite directions and that the problem on directed acyclic graphs is NP-complete and W[1]-hard parameterized by the size of the sets in consideration. We then show our main result: a linear-time algorithm for the problem on directed graphs whose underlying undirected graphs are trees, which are called polytrees. Such a result is also known for the undirected variant of the problem on trees [Demaine et al. TCS 2015], but the techniques used here are quite different because of the asymmetric nature of the directed problem. We present a characterization of yes-instances based on the existence of a certain set of directed paths, and then derive simple equivalent conditions from it by some observations, which yield an efficient algorithm. For the polytree case, we also present a quadratic-time algorithm that outputs, if the input is a yes-instance, one of the shortest reconfiguration sequences.

Takehiro Ito, Yuni Iwamasa, Yasuaki Kobayashi, Yu Nakahata, Yota Otachi, Masahiro Takahashi, and Kunihiro Wasa. Independent Set Reconfiguration on Directed Graphs. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 58:1-58:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{ito_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.58, author = {Ito, Takehiro and Iwamasa, Yuni and Kobayashi, Yasuaki and Nakahata, Yu and Otachi, Yota and Takahashi, Masahiro and Wasa, Kunihiro}, title = {{Independent Set Reconfiguration on Directed Graphs}}, booktitle = {47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)}, pages = {58:1--58:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-256-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {241}, editor = {Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168567}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.58}, annote = {Keywords: Combinatorial reconfiguration, token sliding, directed graph, independent set, graph algorithm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 160, 18th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2020)

Subgraph enumeration is a fundamental task in computer science. Since the number of subgraphs can be large, some enumeration algorithms exploit compressed representations for efficiency. One such representation is the Zero-suppressed Binary Decision Diagram (ZDD). ZDDs can represent the set of subgraphs compactly and support several poly-time queries, such as counting and random sampling. Researchers have proposed efficient algorithms to construct ZDDs representing the set of subgraphs under several constraints, which yield fruitful results in many applications. Recently, Zero-suppressed Sentential Decision Diagrams (ZSDDs) have been proposed as variants of ZDDs. ZSDDs can be smaller than ZDDs when representing the same set of subgraphs. However, efficient algorithms to construct ZSDDs are known only for specific types of subgraphs: matchings and paths.
We propose a novel framework to construct ZSDDs representing sets of subgraphs under given constraints. Using our framework, we can construct ZSDDs representing several sets of subgraphs such as matchings, paths, cycles, and spanning trees. We show the bound of sizes of constructed ZSDDs by the branch-width of the input graph, which is smaller than that of ZDDs by the path-width. Experiments show that our methods can construct ZSDDs faster than ZDDs and that the constructed ZSDDs are smaller than ZDDs when representing the same set of subgraphs.

Yu Nakahata, Masaaki Nishino, Jun Kawahara, and Shin-ichi Minato. Enumerating All Subgraphs Under Given Constraints Using Zero-Suppressed Sentential Decision Diagrams. In 18th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 160, pp. 9:1-9:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{nakahata_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2020.9, author = {Nakahata, Yu and Nishino, Masaaki and Kawahara, Jun and Minato, Shin-ichi}, title = {{Enumerating All Subgraphs Under Given Constraints Using Zero-Suppressed Sentential Decision Diagrams}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2020)}, pages = {9:1--9:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-148-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {160}, editor = {Faro, Simone and Cantone, Domenico}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2020.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-120831}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2020.9}, annote = {Keywords: Subgraph, Enumeration, Decision Diagram, Zero-suppressed Sentential Decision Diagram (ZSDD), Top-down construction algorithm} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 103, 17th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2018)

Partitioning a graph into balanced components is important for several applications. For multi-objective problems, it is useful not only to find one solution but also to enumerate all the solutions with good values of objectives. However, there are a vast number of graph partitions in a graph, and thus it is difficult to enumerate desired graph partitions efficiently. In this paper, an algorithm to enumerate all the graph partitions such that all the weights of the connected components are at least a specified value is proposed. To deal with a large search space, we use zero-suppressed binary decision diagrams (ZDDs) to represent sets of graph partitions and we design a new algorithm based on frontier-based search, which is a framework to directly construct a ZDD. Our algorithm utilizes not only ZDDs but also ternary decision diagrams (TDDs) and realizes an operation which seems difficult to be designed only by ZDDs. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm runs up to tens of times faster than an existing state-of-the-art algorithm.

Yu Nakahata, Jun Kawahara, and Shoji Kasahara. Enumerating Graph Partitions Without Too Small Connected Components Using Zero-suppressed Binary and Ternary Decision Diagrams. In 17th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 103, pp. 21:1-21:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{nakahata_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2018.21, author = {Nakahata, Yu and Kawahara, Jun and Kasahara, Shoji}, title = {{Enumerating Graph Partitions Without Too Small Connected Components Using Zero-suppressed Binary and Ternary Decision Diagrams}}, booktitle = {17th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2018)}, pages = {21:1--21:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-070-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {103}, editor = {D'Angelo, Gianlorenzo}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2018.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-89560}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2018.21}, annote = {Keywords: Graph algorithm, Graph partitioning, Decision diagram, Frontier-based search, Enumeration problem} }

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