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Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

We present a fully abstract encoding of λ^{ref}, the call-by-value λ-calculus with references, in the π-calculus. By contrast with previous full abstraction results for sequential languages in the π-calculus, the characterisation of contextual equivalence in the source language uses a labelled bisimilarity. To define the latter equivalence, we refine existing notions of typed bisimulation in the π-calculus, and introduce in particular a specific component to handle divergences.
We obtain a proof technique that allows us to prove equivalences between λ^{ref} programs via the encoding. The resulting proofs correspond closely to normal form bisimulations in the λ-calculus, making proofs in the π-calculus expressible as if reasoning in λ^{ref}.
We study how standard and new up-to techniques can be used to reason about diverging terms and simplify proofs of equivalence using the bisimulation we introduce. This shows how the π-calculus theory can be used to prove interesting equivalences between λ^{ref} programs, using algebraic reasoning and up-to techniques.

Enguerrand Prebet. Functions and References in the Pi-Calculus: Full Abstraction and Proof Techniques. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 130:1-130:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{prebet:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.130, author = {Prebet, Enguerrand}, title = {{Functions and References in the Pi-Calculus: Full Abstraction and Proof Techniques}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {130:1--130:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.130}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164715}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.130}, annote = {Keywords: Call-by-value \lambda-calculus, imperative Programming, \pi-calculus, Bisimulation, Type System} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 171, 31st International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2020)

The π-calculus has been advocated as a model to interpret, and give semantics to, languages with higher-order features. Often these languages make use of forms of references (and hence viewing a store as set of references). While translations of references in π-calculi (and CCS) have appeared, the precision of such translations has not been fully investigated. In this paper we address this issue.
We focus on the asynchronous π-calculus (Aπ), where translations of references are simpler. We first define π^ref, an extension of Aπ with references and operators to manipulate them, and illustrate examples of the subtleties of behavioural equivalence in π^ref. We then consider a translation of π^ref into Aπ. References of π^ref are mapped onto names of Aπ belonging to a dedicated "reference" type. We show how the presence of reference names affects the definition of barbed congruence. We establish full abstraction of the translation w.r.t. barbed congruence and barbed equivalence in the two calculi. We investigate proof techniques for barbed equivalence in Aπ, based on two forms of labelled bisimilarities. For one bisimilarity we derive both soundness and completeness; for another, more efficient and involving an inductive "game" on reference names, we derive soundness, leaving completeness open. Finally, we discuss examples of uses of the bisimilarities.

Daniel Hirschkoff, Enguerrand Prebet, and Davide Sangiorgi. On the Representation of References in the Pi-Calculus. In 31st International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 171, pp. 34:1-34:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{hirschkoff_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2020.34, author = {Hirschkoff, Daniel and Prebet, Enguerrand and Sangiorgi, Davide}, title = {{On the Representation of References in the Pi-Calculus}}, booktitle = {31st International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2020)}, pages = {34:1--34:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-160-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {171}, editor = {Konnov, Igor and Kov\'{a}cs, Laura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2020.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-128466}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2020.34}, annote = {Keywords: Process calculus, Bisimulation, Asynchrony, Imperative programming} }

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