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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

A temporal graph is an undirected graph G = (V,E) along with a function λ : E → ℕ^+ that assigns a time-label to each edge in E. A path in G such that the traversed time-labels are non-decreasing is called a temporal path. Accordingly, the distance from u to v is the minimum length (i.e., the number of edges) of a temporal path from u to v. A temporal α-spanner of G is a (temporal) subgraph H that preserves the distances between any pair of vertices in V, up to a multiplicative stretch factor of α. The size of H is measured as the number of its edges.
In this work, we study the size-stretch trade-offs of temporal spanners. In particular we show that temporal cliques always admit a temporal (2k-1)-spanner with Õ(kn^{1+1/k}) edges, where k > 1 is an integer parameter of choice. Choosing k = ⌊log n⌋, we obtain a temporal O(log n)-spanner with Õ(n) edges that has almost the same size (up to logarithmic factors) as the temporal spanner given in [Casteigts et al., JCSS 2021] which only preserves temporal connectivity.
We then turn our attention to general temporal graphs. Since Ω(n²) edges might be needed by any connectivity-preserving temporal subgraph [Axiotis et al., ICALP'16], we focus on approximating distances from a single source. We show that Õ(n/log(1+ε)) edges suffice to obtain a stretch of (1+ε), for any small ε > 0. This result is essentially tight in the following sense: there are temporal graphs G for which any temporal subgraph preserving exact distances from a single-source must use Ω(n²) edges. Interestingly enough, our analysis can be extended to the case of additive stretch for which we prove an upper bound of Õ(n² / β) on the size of any temporal β-additive spanner, which we show to be tight up to polylogarithmic factors.
Finally, we investigate how the lifetime of G, i.e., the number of its distinct time-labels, affects the trade-off between the size and the stretch of a temporal spanner.

Davide Bilò, Gianlorenzo D'Angelo, Luciano Gualà, Stefano Leucci, and Mirko Rossi. Sparse Temporal Spanners with Low Stretch. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 19:1-19:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bilo_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.19, author = {Bil\`{o}, Davide and D'Angelo, Gianlorenzo and Gual\`{a}, Luciano and Leucci, Stefano and Rossi, Mirko}, title = {{Sparse Temporal Spanners with Low Stretch}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {19:1--19:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-169575}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.19}, annote = {Keywords: temporal spanners, temporal graphs, graph sparsification, approximate distances} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 219, 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)

Let G be a directed graph with n vertices, m edges, and non-negative edge costs. Given G, a fixed source vertex s, and a positive integer p, we consider the problem of computing, for each vertex t≠ s, p edge-disjoint paths of minimum total cost from s to t in G. Suurballe and Tarjan [Networks, 1984] solved the above problem for p = 2 by designing a O(m+nlog n) time algorithm which also computes a sparse single-source 2-multipath preserver, i.e., a subgraph containing 2 edge-disjoint paths of minimum total cost from s to every other vertex of G. The case p ≥ 3 was left as an open problem.
We study the general problem (p ≥ 2) and prove that any graph admits a sparse single-source p-multipath preserver with p(n-1) edges. This size is optimal since the in-degree of each non-root vertex v must be at least p. Moreover, we design an algorithm that requires O(pn² (p + log n)) time to compute both p edge-disjoint paths of minimum total cost from the source to all other vertices and an optimal-size single-source p-multipath preserver. The running time of our algorithm outperforms that of a natural approach that solves n-1 single-pair instances using the well-known successive shortest paths algorithm by a factor of Θ(m/(np)) and is asymptotically near optimal if p = O(1) and m = Θ(n²). Our results extend naturally to the case of p vertex-disjoint paths.

Davide Bilò, Gianlorenzo D'Angelo, Luciano Gualà, Stefano Leucci, Guido Proietti, and Mirko Rossi. Single-Source Shortest p-Disjoint Paths: Fast Computation and Sparse Preservers. In 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 219, pp. 12:1-12:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bilo_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2022.12, author = {Bil\`{o}, Davide and D'Angelo, Gianlorenzo and Gual\`{a}, Luciano and Leucci, Stefano and Proietti, Guido and Rossi, Mirko}, title = {{Single-Source Shortest p-Disjoint Paths: Fast Computation and Sparse Preservers}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)}, pages = {12:1--12:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-222-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {219}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-158221}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.12}, annote = {Keywords: multipath spanners, graph sparsification, edge-disjoint paths, min-cost flow} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 100, 9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018)

Peg Duotaire is a two-player version of the classical puzzle called Peg Solitaire. Players take turns making peg-jumping moves, and the first player which is left without available moves loses the game. Peg Duotaire has been studied from a combinatorial point of view and two versions of the game have been considered, namely the single- and the multi-hop variant. On the other hand, understanding the computational complexity of the game is explicitly mentioned as an open problem in the literature. We close this problem and prove that both versions of the game are PSPACE-complete. We also prove the PSPACE-completeness of other peg-jumping games where two players control pegs of different colors.

Davide Bilò, Luciano Gualà, Stefano Leucci, Guido Proietti, and Mirko Rossi. On the PSPACE-completeness of Peg Duotaire and other Peg-Jumping Games. In 9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 100, pp. 8:1-8:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bilo_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2018.8, author = {Bil\`{o}, Davide and Gual\`{a}, Luciano and Leucci, Stefano and Proietti, Guido and Rossi, Mirko}, title = {{On the PSPACE-completeness of Peg Duotaire and other Peg-Jumping Games}}, booktitle = {9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018)}, pages = {8:1--8:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-067-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {100}, editor = {Ito, Hiro and Leonardi, Stefano and Pagli, Linda and Prencipe, Giuseppe}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2018.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-87994}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2018.8}, annote = {Keywords: peg duotaire, pspace-completeness, peg solitaire, two-player games} }

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