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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 202, 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)

We study the problem #EdgeSub(Φ) of counting k-edge subgraphs satisfying a given graph property Φ in a large host graph G. Building upon the breakthrough result of Curticapean, Dell and Marx (STOC 17), we express the number of such subgraphs as a finite linear combination of graph homomorphism counts and derive the complexity of computing this number by studying its coefficients.
Our approach relies on novel constructions of low-degree Cayley graph expanders of p-groups, which might be of independent interest. The properties of those expanders allow us to analyse the coefficients in the aforementioned linear combinations over the field 𝔽_p which gives us significantly more control over the cancellation behaviour of the coefficients. Our main result is an exhaustive and fine-grained complexity classification of #EdgeSub(Φ) for minor-closed properties Φ, closing the missing gap in previous work by Roth, Schmitt and Wellnitz (ICALP 21).
Additionally, we observe that our methods also apply to modular counting. Among others, we obtain novel intractability results for the problems of counting k-forests and matroid bases modulo a prime p. Furthermore, from an algorithmic point of view, we construct algorithms for the problems of counting k-paths and k-cycles modulo 2 that outperform the best known algorithms for their non-modular counterparts.
In the course of our investigations we also provide an exhaustive parameterized complexity classification for the problem of counting graph homomorphisms modulo a prime p.

Norbert Peyerimhoff, Marc Roth, Johannes Schmitt, Jakob Stix, and Alina Vdovina. Parameterized (Modular) Counting and Cayley Graph Expanders. In 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 202, pp. 84:1-84:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{peyerimhoff_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.84, author = {Peyerimhoff, Norbert and Roth, Marc and Schmitt, Johannes and Stix, Jakob and Vdovina, Alina}, title = {{Parameterized (Modular) Counting and Cayley Graph Expanders}}, booktitle = {46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)}, pages = {84:1--84:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-201-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {202}, editor = {Bonchi, Filippo and Puglisi, Simon J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.84}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-145246}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.84}, annote = {Keywords: Cayley graphs, counting complexity, expander graphs, fine-grained complexity, parameterized complexity} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

Given a graph property Φ, we consider the problem EdgeSub(Φ), where the input is a pair of a graph G and a positive integer k, and the task is to decide whether G contains a k-edge subgraph that satisfies Φ. Specifically, we study the parameterized complexity of EdgeSub(Φ) and of its counting problem #EdgeSub(Φ) with respect to both approximate and exact counting. We obtain a complete picture for minor-closed properties Φ: the decision problem EdgeSub(Φ) always admits an FPT ("fixed-parameter tractable") algorithm and the counting problem #EdgeSub(Φ) always admits an FPTRAS ("fixed-parameter tractable randomized approximation scheme"). For exact counting, we present an exhaustive and explicit criterion on the property Φ which, if satisfied, yields fixed-parameter tractability and otherwise #W[1]-hardness. Additionally, most of our hardness results come with an almost tight conditional lower bound under the so-called Exponential Time Hypothesis, ruling out algorithms for #EdgeSub(Φ) that run in time f(k)⋅ |G|^{o(k/log k)} for any computable function f.
As a main technical result, we gain a complete understanding of the coefficients of toroidal grids and selected Cayley graph expanders in the homomorphism basis of #EdgeSub(Φ). This allows us to establish hardness of exact counting using the Complexity Monotonicity framework due to Curticapean, Dell and Marx (STOC'17). This approach does not only apply to #EdgeSub(Φ) but also to the more general problem of computing weighted linear combinations of subgraph counts. As a special case of such a linear combination, we introduce a parameterized variant of the Tutte Polynomial T^k_G of a graph G, to which many known combinatorial interpretations of values of the (classical) Tutte Polynomial can be extended. As an example, T^k_G(2,1) corresponds to the number of k-forests in the graph G. Our techniques allow us to completely understand the parameterized complexity of computing the evaluation of T^k_G at every pair of rational coordinates (x,y). In particular, our results give a new proof for the #W[1]-hardness of the problem of counting k-forests in a graph.

Marc Roth, Johannes Schmitt, and Philip Wellnitz. Detecting and Counting Small Subgraphs, and Evaluating a Parameterized Tutte Polynomial: Lower Bounds via Toroidal Grids and Cayley Graph Expanders. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 108:1-108:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{roth_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.108, author = {Roth, Marc and Schmitt, Johannes and Wellnitz, Philip}, title = {{Detecting and Counting Small Subgraphs, and Evaluating a Parameterized Tutte Polynomial: Lower Bounds via Toroidal Grids and Cayley Graph Expanders}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {108:1--108:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.108}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141778}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.108}, annote = {Keywords: Counting complexity, parameterized complexity, Tutte polynomial} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 138, 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)

We study the problem #IndSub(Phi) of counting all induced subgraphs of size k in a graph G that satisfy the property Phi. This problem was introduced by Jerrum and Meeks and shown to be #W[1]-hard when parameterized by k for some families of properties Phi including, among others, connectivity [JCSS 15] and even- or oddness of the number of edges [Combinatorica 17]. Very recently [IPEC 18], two of the authors introduced a novel technique for the complexity analysis of #IndSub(Phi), inspired by the "topological approach to evasiveness" of Kahn, Saks and Sturtevant [FOCS 83] and the framework of graph motif parameters due to Curticapean, Dell and Marx [STOC 17], allowing them to prove hardness of a wide range of properties Phi. In this work, we refine this technique for graph properties that are non-trivial on edge-transitive graphs with a prime power number of edges. In particular, we fully classify the case of monotone bipartite graph properties: It is shown that, given any graph property Phi that is closed under the removal of vertices and edges, and that is non-trivial for bipartite graphs, the problem #IndSub(Phi) is #W[1]-hard and cannot be solved in time f(k)* n^{o(k)} for any computable function f, unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis fails. This holds true even if the input graph is restricted to be bipartite and counting is done modulo a fixed prime. A similar result is shown for properties that are closed under the removal of edges only.

Julian Dörfler, Marc Roth, Johannes Schmitt, and Philip Wellnitz. Counting Induced Subgraphs: An Algebraic Approach to #W[1]-hardness. In 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 138, pp. 26:1-26:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{dorfler_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.26, author = {D\"{o}rfler, Julian and Roth, Marc and Schmitt, Johannes and Wellnitz, Philip}, title = {{Counting Induced Subgraphs: An Algebraic Approach to #W\lbrack1\rbrack-hardness}}, booktitle = {44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)}, pages = {26:1--26:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-117-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {138}, editor = {Rossmanith, Peter and Heggernes, Pinar and Katoen, Joost-Pieter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109703}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.26}, annote = {Keywords: counting complexity, edge-transitive graphs, graph homomorphisms, induced subgraphs, parameterized complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 115, 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)

We investigate the problem #{IndSub}(Phi) of counting all induced subgraphs of size k in a graph G that satisfy a given property Phi. This continues the work of Jerrum and Meeks who proved the problem to be #{W[1]}-hard for some families of properties which include, among others, (dis)connectedness [JCSS 15] and even- or oddness of the number of edges [Combinatorica 17]. Using the recent framework of graph motif parameters due to Curticapean, Dell and Marx [STOC 17], we discover that for monotone properties Phi, the problem #{IndSub}(Phi) is hard for #{W[1]} if the reduced Euler characteristic of the associated simplicial (graph) complex of Phi is non-zero. This observation links #{IndSub}(Phi) to Karp's famous Evasiveness Conjecture, as every graph complex with non-vanishing reduced Euler characteristic is known to be evasive. Applying tools from the "topological approach to evasiveness" which was introduced in the seminal paper of Khan, Saks and Sturtevant [FOCS 83], we prove that #{IndSub}(Phi) is #{W[1]}-hard for every monotone property Phi that does not hold on the Hamilton cycle as well as for some monotone properties that hold on the Hamilton cycle such as being triangle-free or not k-edge-connected for k > 2. Moreover, we show that for those properties #{IndSub}(Phi) can not be solved in time f(k)* n^{o(k)} for any computable function f unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH) fails. In the final part of the paper, we investigate non-monotone properties and prove that #{IndSub}(Phi) is #{W[1]}-hard if Phi is any non-trivial modularity constraint on the number of edges with respect to some prime q or if Phi enforces the presence of a fixed isolated subgraph.

Marc Roth and Johannes Schmitt. Counting Induced Subgraphs: A Topological Approach to #W[1]-hardness. In 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 115, pp. 24:1-24:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{roth_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.24, author = {Roth, Marc and Schmitt, Johannes}, title = {{Counting Induced Subgraphs: A Topological Approach to #W\lbrack1\rbrack-hardness}}, booktitle = {13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)}, pages = {24:1--24:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-084-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {115}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Pilipczuk, Michal}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102255}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.24}, annote = {Keywords: counting complexity, Euler characteristic, homomorphisms, parameterized complexity, simplicial complexes} }

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