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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 138, 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)

This paper introduces and studies a notion of algorithmic randomness for subgroups of rationals. Given a randomly generated additive subgroup (G,+) of rationals, two main questions are addressed: first, what are the model-theoretic and recursion-theoretic properties of (G,+); second, what learnability properties can one extract from G and its subclass of finitely generated subgroups? For the first question, it is shown that the theory of (G,+) coincides with that of the additive group of integers and is therefore decidable; furthermore, while the word problem for G with respect to any generating sequence for G is not even semi-decidable, one can build a generating sequence beta such that the word problem for G with respect to beta is co-recursively enumerable (assuming that the set of generators of G is limit-recursive). In regard to the second question, it is proven that there is a generating sequence beta for G such that every non-trivial finitely generated subgroup of G is recursively enumerable and the class of all such subgroups of G is behaviourally correctly learnable, that is, every non-trivial finitely generated subgroup can be semantically identified in the limit (again assuming that the set of generators of G is limit-recursive). On the other hand, the class of non-trivial finitely generated subgroups of G cannot be syntactically identified in the limit with respect to any generating sequence for G. The present work thus contributes to a recent line of research studying algorithmically random infinite structures and uncovers an interesting connection between the arithmetical complexity of the set of generators of a randomly generated subgroup of rationals and the learnability of its finitely generated subgroups.

Ziyuan Gao, Sanjay Jain, Bakhadyr Khoussainov, Wei Li, Alexander Melnikov, Karen Seidel, and Frank Stephan. Random Subgroups of Rationals. In 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 138, pp. 25:1-25:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{gao_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.25, author = {Gao, Ziyuan and Jain, Sanjay and Khoussainov, Bakhadyr and Li, Wei and Melnikov, Alexander and Seidel, Karen and Stephan, Frank}, title = {{Random Subgroups of Rationals}}, booktitle = {44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)}, pages = {25:1--25:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-117-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {138}, editor = {Rossmanith, Peter and Heggernes, Pinar and Katoen, Joost-Pieter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109693}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.25}, annote = {Keywords: Martin-L\"{o}f randomness, subgroups of rationals, finitely generated subgroups of rationals, learning in the limit, behaviourally correct learning} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 117, 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)

Many important graph theoretic notions can be encoded as counting graph homomorphism problems, such as partition functions in statistical physics, in particular independent sets and colourings. In this article we study the complexity of #_pHomsToH, the problem of counting graph homomorphisms from an input graph to a graph H modulo a prime number p. Dyer and Greenhill proved a dichotomy stating that the tractability of non-modular counting graph homomorphisms depends on the structure of the target graph. Many intractable cases in non-modular counting become tractable in modular counting due to the common phenomenon of cancellation. In subsequent studies on counting modulo 2, however, the influence of the structure of H on the tractability was shown to persist, which yields similar dichotomies.
Our main result states that for every tree H and every prime p the problem #_pHomsToH is either polynomial time computable or #_pP-complete. This relates to the conjecture of Faben and Jerrum stating that this dichotomy holds for every graph H when counting modulo 2. In contrast to previous results on modular counting, the tractable cases of #_pHomsToH are essentially the same for all values of the modulo when H is a tree. To prove this result, we study the structural properties of a homomorphism. As an important interim result, our study yields a dichotomy for the problem of counting weighted independent sets in a bipartite graph modulo some prime p. These results are the first suggesting that such dichotomies hold not only for the one-bit functions of the modulo 2 case but also for the modular counting functions of all primes p.

Andreas Göbel, J. A. Gregor Lagodzinski, and Karen Seidel. Counting Homomorphisms to Trees Modulo a Prime. In 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 117, pp. 49:1-49:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{gobel_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.49, author = {G\"{o}bel, Andreas and Lagodzinski, J. A. Gregor and Seidel, Karen}, title = {{Counting Homomorphisms to Trees Modulo a Prime}}, booktitle = {43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)}, pages = {49:1--49:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-086-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {117}, editor = {Potapov, Igor and Spirakis, Paul and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.49}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-96315}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.49}, annote = {Keywords: Algorithms, Theory, Graph Homomorphisms, Counting Modulo a Prime, Complexity Dichotomy} }

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