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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

Given a graph property Φ, we consider the problem EdgeSub(Φ), where the input is a pair of a graph G and a positive integer k, and the task is to decide whether G contains a k-edge subgraph that satisfies Φ. Specifically, we study the parameterized complexity of EdgeSub(Φ) and of its counting problem #EdgeSub(Φ) with respect to both approximate and exact counting. We obtain a complete picture for minor-closed properties Φ: the decision problem EdgeSub(Φ) always admits an FPT ("fixed-parameter tractable") algorithm and the counting problem #EdgeSub(Φ) always admits an FPTRAS ("fixed-parameter tractable randomized approximation scheme"). For exact counting, we present an exhaustive and explicit criterion on the property Φ which, if satisfied, yields fixed-parameter tractability and otherwise #W[1]-hardness. Additionally, most of our hardness results come with an almost tight conditional lower bound under the so-called Exponential Time Hypothesis, ruling out algorithms for #EdgeSub(Φ) that run in time f(k)⋅ |G|^{o(k/log k)} for any computable function f.
As a main technical result, we gain a complete understanding of the coefficients of toroidal grids and selected Cayley graph expanders in the homomorphism basis of #EdgeSub(Φ). This allows us to establish hardness of exact counting using the Complexity Monotonicity framework due to Curticapean, Dell and Marx (STOC'17). This approach does not only apply to #EdgeSub(Φ) but also to the more general problem of computing weighted linear combinations of subgraph counts. As a special case of such a linear combination, we introduce a parameterized variant of the Tutte Polynomial T^k_G of a graph G, to which many known combinatorial interpretations of values of the (classical) Tutte Polynomial can be extended. As an example, T^k_G(2,1) corresponds to the number of k-forests in the graph G. Our techniques allow us to completely understand the parameterized complexity of computing the evaluation of T^k_G at every pair of rational coordinates (x,y). In particular, our results give a new proof for the #W[1]-hardness of the problem of counting k-forests in a graph.

Marc Roth, Johannes Schmitt, and Philip Wellnitz. Detecting and Counting Small Subgraphs, and Evaluating a Parameterized Tutte Polynomial: Lower Bounds via Toroidal Grids and Cayley Graph Expanders. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 108:1-108:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{roth_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.108, author = {Roth, Marc and Schmitt, Johannes and Wellnitz, Philip}, title = {{Detecting and Counting Small Subgraphs, and Evaluating a Parameterized Tutte Polynomial: Lower Bounds via Toroidal Grids and Cayley Graph Expanders}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {108:1--108:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.108}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141778}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.108}, annote = {Keywords: Counting complexity, parameterized complexity, Tutte polynomial} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

This paper is concerned with the 1||∑ p_jU_j problem, the problem of minimizing the total processing time of tardy jobs on a single machine. This is not only a fundamental scheduling problem, but also a very important problem from a theoretical point of view as it generalizes the Subset Sum problem and is closely related to the 0/1-Knapsack problem. The problem is well-known to be NP-hard, but only in a weak sense, meaning it admits pseudo-polynomial time algorithms. The fastest known pseudo-polynomial time algorithm for the problem is the famous Lawler and Moore algorithm which runs in O(P ⋅ n) time, where P is the total processing time of all n jobs in the input. This algorithm has been developed in the late 60s, and has yet to be improved to date.
In this paper we develop two new algorithms for 1||∑ p_jU_j, each improving on Lawler and Moore’s algorithm in a different scenario:
- Our first algorithm runs in Õ(P^{7/4}) time, and outperforms Lawler and Moore’s algorithm in instances where n = ω̃(P^{3/4}).
- Our second algorithm runs in Õ(min{P ⋅ D_#, P + D}) time, where D_# is the number of different due dates in the instance, and D is the sum of all different due dates. This algorithm improves on Lawler and Moore’s algorithm when n = ω̃(D_#) or n = ω̃(D/P). Further, it extends the known Õ(P) algorithm for the single due date special case of 1||∑ p_jU_j in a natural way.
Both algorithms rely on basic primitive operations between sets of integers and vectors of integers for the speedup in their running times. The second algorithm relies on fast polynomial multiplication as its main engine, while for the first algorithm we define a new "skewed" version of (max,min)-convolution which is interesting in its own right.

Karl Bringmann, Nick Fischer, Danny Hermelin, Dvir Shabtay, and Philip Wellnitz. Faster Minimization of Tardy Processing Time on a Single Machine. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 19:1-19:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bringmann_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.19, author = {Bringmann, Karl and Fischer, Nick and Hermelin, Danny and Shabtay, Dvir and Wellnitz, Philip}, title = {{Faster Minimization of Tardy Processing Time on a Single Machine}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {19:1--19:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124269}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.19}, annote = {Keywords: Weighted number of tardy jobs, sumsets, convolutions} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 138, 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)

We study the problem #IndSub(Phi) of counting all induced subgraphs of size k in a graph G that satisfy the property Phi. This problem was introduced by Jerrum and Meeks and shown to be #W[1]-hard when parameterized by k for some families of properties Phi including, among others, connectivity [JCSS 15] and even- or oddness of the number of edges [Combinatorica 17]. Very recently [IPEC 18], two of the authors introduced a novel technique for the complexity analysis of #IndSub(Phi), inspired by the "topological approach to evasiveness" of Kahn, Saks and Sturtevant [FOCS 83] and the framework of graph motif parameters due to Curticapean, Dell and Marx [STOC 17], allowing them to prove hardness of a wide range of properties Phi. In this work, we refine this technique for graph properties that are non-trivial on edge-transitive graphs with a prime power number of edges. In particular, we fully classify the case of monotone bipartite graph properties: It is shown that, given any graph property Phi that is closed under the removal of vertices and edges, and that is non-trivial for bipartite graphs, the problem #IndSub(Phi) is #W[1]-hard and cannot be solved in time f(k)* n^{o(k)} for any computable function f, unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis fails. This holds true even if the input graph is restricted to be bipartite and counting is done modulo a fixed prime. A similar result is shown for properties that are closed under the removal of edges only.

Julian Dörfler, Marc Roth, Johannes Schmitt, and Philip Wellnitz. Counting Induced Subgraphs: An Algebraic Approach to #W[1]-hardness. In 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 138, pp. 26:1-26:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{dorfler_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.26, author = {D\"{o}rfler, Julian and Roth, Marc and Schmitt, Johannes and Wellnitz, Philip}, title = {{Counting Induced Subgraphs: An Algebraic Approach to #W\lbrack1\rbrack-hardness}}, booktitle = {44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)}, pages = {26:1--26:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-117-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {138}, editor = {Rossmanith, Peter and Heggernes, Pinar and Katoen, Joost-Pieter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109703}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.26}, annote = {Keywords: counting complexity, edge-transitive graphs, graph homomorphisms, induced subgraphs, parameterized complexity} }

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Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

Conjunctive queries select and are expected to return certain tuples from a relational database. We study the potentially easier problem of counting all selected tuples, rather than enumerating them. In particular, we are interested in the problem’s parameterized and data complexity, where the query is considered to be small or even fixed, and the database is considered to be large. We identify two structural parameters for conjunctive queries that capture their inherent complexity: The dominating star size and the linked matching number. If the dominating star size of a conjunctive query is large, then we show that counting solution tuples to the query is at least as hard as counting dominating sets, which yields a fine-grained complexity lower bound under the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis (SETH) as well as a #W[2]-hardness result in parameterized complexity. Moreover, if the linked matching number of a conjunctive query is large, then we show that the structure of the query is so rich that arbitrary queries up to a certain size can be encoded into it; in the language of parameterized complexity, this essentially establishes a #A[2]-completeness result.
Using ideas stemming from Lovász (1967), we lift complexity results from the class of conjunctive queries to arbitrary existential or universal formulas that might contain inequalities and negations on constraints over the free variables. As a consequence, we obtain a complexity classification that refines and generalizes previous results of Chen, Durand, and Mengel (ToCS 2015; ICDT 2015; PODS 2016) for conjunctive queries and of Curticapean and Marx (FOCS 2014) for the subgraph counting problem. Our proof also relies on graph minors, and we show a strengthening of the Excluded-Grid-Theorem which might be of independent interest: If the linked matching number (and thus the treewidth) is large, then not only can we find a large grid somewhere in the graph, but we can find a large grid whose diagonal has disjoint paths leading into an assumed node-well-linked set.

Holger Dell, Marc Roth, and Philip Wellnitz. Counting Answers to Existential Questions (Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming). In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 113:1-113:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{dell_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.113, author = {Dell, Holger and Roth, Marc and Wellnitz, Philip}, title = {{Counting Answers to Existential Questions}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {113:1--113:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.113}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106894}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.113}, annote = {Keywords: Conjunctive queries, graph homomorphisms, counting complexity, parameterized complexity, fine-grained complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 78, 28th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2017)

Tree-adjoining grammars are a generalization of context-free grammars that are well suited to model human languages and are thus popular in computational linguistics. In the tree-adjoining grammar recognition problem, given a grammar G and a string s of length n, the task is to decide whether s can be obtained from G. Rajasekaran and Yooseph’s parser (JCSS’98) solves this problem in time O(n^2w), where w < 2.373 is the matrix multiplication exponent. The best algorithms avoiding fast matrix multiplication take time O(n^6). The first evidence for hardness was given by Satta (J. Comp. Linguist.’94): For a more general parsing problem, any algorithm that avoids fast matrix multiplication and is significantly faster than O(|G|·n^6) in the case of |G| = Theta(n^12) would imply a breakthrough for Boolean matrix multiplication. Following an approach by Abboud et al. (FOCS’15) for context-free grammar recognition, in this paper we resolve many of the disadvantages of the previous lower bound. We show that, even on constant-size grammars, any improvement on Rajasekaran and Yooseph’s parser would imply a breakthrough for the k-Clique problem. This establishes tree-adjoining grammar parsing as a practically relevant problem with the unusual running time of n^2w , up to lower order factors.

Karl Bringmann and Philip Wellnitz. Clique-Based Lower Bounds for Parsing Tree-Adjoining Grammars. In 28th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 78, pp. 12:1-12:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{bringmann_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2017.12, author = {Bringmann, Karl and Wellnitz, Philip}, title = {{Clique-Based Lower Bounds for Parsing Tree-Adjoining Grammars}}, booktitle = {28th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2017)}, pages = {12:1--12:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-039-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {78}, editor = {K\"{a}rkk\"{a}inen, Juha and Radoszewski, Jakub and Rytter, Wojciech}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2017.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-73329}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2017.12}, annote = {Keywords: conditional lower bounds, k-Clique, parsing, tree-adjoining grammars} }

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