3 Search Results for "Ito, Tsuyoshi"


Document
Span Programs and Quantum Time Complexity

Authors: Arjan Cornelissen, Stacey Jeffery, Maris Ozols, and Alvaro Piedrafita

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 170, 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)


Abstract
Span programs are an important model of quantum computation due to their correspondence with quantum query and space complexity. While the query complexity of quantum algorithms obtained from span programs is well-understood, it is not generally clear how to implement certain query-independent operations in a time-efficient manner. In this work, we prove an analogous connection for quantum time complexity. In particular, we show how to convert a sufficiently-structured quantum algorithm for f with time complexity T into a span program for f such that it compiles back into a quantum algorithm for f with time complexity 𝒪̃(T). This shows that for span programs derived from algorithms with a time-efficient implementation, we can preserve the time efficiency when implementing the span program, which means that span programs capture time, query and space complexities and are a complete model of quantum algorithms. One practical advantage of being able to convert quantum algorithms to span programs in a way that preserves time complexity is that span programs compose very nicely. We demonstrate this by improving Ambainis’s variable-time quantum search result using our construction through a span program composition for the OR function.

Cite as

Arjan Cornelissen, Stacey Jeffery, Maris Ozols, and Alvaro Piedrafita. Span Programs and Quantum Time Complexity. In 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 170, pp. 26:1-26:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{cornelissen_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.26,
  author =	{Cornelissen, Arjan and Jeffery, Stacey and Ozols, Maris and Piedrafita, Alvaro},
  title =	{{Span Programs and Quantum Time Complexity}},
  booktitle =	{45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)},
  pages =	{26:1--26:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-159-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{170},
  editor =	{Esparza, Javier and Kr\'{a}l', Daniel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.26},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126947},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.26},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum query algorithms, span programs, variable-time quantum search}
}
Document
Span Programs and Quantum Space Complexity

Authors: Stacey Jeffery

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)


Abstract
While quantum computers hold the promise of significant computational speedups, the limited size of early quantum machines motivates the study of space-bounded quantum computation. We relate the quantum space complexity of computing a function f with one-sided error to the logarithm of its span program size, a classical quantity that is well-studied in attempts to prove formula size lower bounds. In the more natural bounded error model, we show that the amount of space needed for a unitary quantum algorithm to compute f with bounded (two-sided) error is lower bounded by the logarithm of its approximate span program size. Approximate span programs were introduced in the field of quantum algorithms but not studied classically. However, the approximate span program size of a function is a natural generalization of its span program size. While no non-trivial lower bound is known on the span program size (or approximate span program size) of any concrete function, a number of lower bounds are known on the monotone span program size. We show that the approximate monotone span program size of f is a lower bound on the space needed by quantum algorithms of a particular form, called monotone phase estimation algorithms, to compute f. We then give the first non-trivial lower bound on the approximate span program size of an explicit function.

Cite as

Stacey Jeffery. Span Programs and Quantum Space Complexity. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 4:1-4:37, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{jeffery:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.4,
  author =	{Jeffery, Stacey},
  title =	{{Span Programs and Quantum Space Complexity}},
  booktitle =	{11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:37},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-134-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{151},
  editor =	{Vidick, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-116896},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum space complexity, span programs}
}
Document
Approximate Span Programs

Authors: Tsuyoshi Ito and Stacey Jeffery

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)


Abstract
Span programs are a model of computation that have been used to design quantum algorithms, mainly in the query model. It is known that for any decision problem, there exists a span program that leads to an algorithm with optimal quantum query complexity, however finding such an algorithm is generally challenging. In this work, we consider new ways of designing quantum algorithms using span programs. We show how any span program that decides a problem f can also be used to decide "property testing" versions of the function f, or more generally, approximate a quantity called the span program witness size, which is some property of the input related to f. For example, using our techniques, the span program for OR, which can be used to design an optimal algorithm for the OR function, can also be used to design optimal algorithms for: threshold functions, in which we want to decide if the Hamming weight of a string is above a threshold, or far below, given the promise that one of these is true; and approximate counting, in which we want to estimate the Hamming weight of the input up to some desired accuracy. We achieve these results by relaxing the requirement that 1-inputs hit some target exactly in the span program, which could potentially make design of span programs significantly easier. In addition, we give an exposition of span program structure, which increases the general understanding of this important model. One implication of this is alternative algorithms for estimating the witness size when the phase gap of a certain unitary can be lower bounded. We show how to lower bound this phase gap in certain cases. As an application, we give the first upper bounds in the adjacency query model on the quantum time complexity of estimating the effective resistance between s and t, R_{s,t}(G). For this problem we obtain ~O(1/epsilon^{3/2}*n*sqrt(R_{s,t}(G)), using O(log(n)) space. In addition, when mu is a lower bound on lambda_2(G), by our phase gap lower bound, we can obtain an upper bound of ~O(1/epsilon*n*sqrt(R){s,t}(G)/mu)) for estimating effective resistance, also using O(log(n)) space.

Cite as

Tsuyoshi Ito and Stacey Jeffery. Approximate Span Programs. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 12:1-12:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{ito_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.12,
  author =	{Ito, Tsuyoshi and Jeffery, Stacey},
  title =	{{Approximate Span Programs}},
  booktitle =	{43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-013-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-62956},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum algorithms, span programs, quantum query complexity, effective resistance}
}
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