2 Search Results for "Santos, Raquel Bento"


Document
Comparing Different Approaches for Detecting Hate Speech in Online Portuguese Comments

Authors: Bernardo Cunha Matos, Raquel Bento Santos, Paula Carvalho, Ricardo Ribeiro, and Fernando Batista

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 104, 11th Symposium on Languages, Applications and Technologies (SLATE 2022)


Abstract
Online Hate Speech (OHS) has been growing dramatically on social media, which has motivated researchers to develop a diversity of methods for its automated detection. However, the detection of OHS in Portuguese is still little studied. To fill this gap, we explored different models that proved to be successful in the literature to address this task. In particular, we have explored transfer learning approaches, based on existing BERT-like pre-trained models. The performed experiments were based on CO-HATE, a corpus of YouTube comments posted by the Portuguese online community that was manually labeled by different annotators. Among other categories, those comments were labeled regarding the presence of hate speech and the type of hate speech, specifically overt and covert hate speech. We have assessed the impact of using annotations from different annotators on the performance of such models. In addition, we have analyzed the impact of distinguishing overt and and covert hate speech. The results achieved show the importance of considering the annotator’s profile in the development of hate speech detection models. Regarding the hate speech type, the results obtained do not allow to make any conclusion on what type is easier to detect. Finally, we show that pre-processing does not seem to have a significant impact on the performance of this specific task.

Cite as

Bernardo Cunha Matos, Raquel Bento Santos, Paula Carvalho, Ricardo Ribeiro, and Fernando Batista. Comparing Different Approaches for Detecting Hate Speech in Online Portuguese Comments. In 11th Symposium on Languages, Applications and Technologies (SLATE 2022). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 104, pp. 10:1-10:12, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{matos_et_al:OASIcs.SLATE.2022.10,
  author =	{Matos, Bernardo Cunha and Santos, Raquel Bento and Carvalho, Paula and Ribeiro, Ricardo and Batista, Fernando},
  title =	{{Comparing Different Approaches for Detecting Hate Speech in Online Portuguese Comments}},
  booktitle =	{11th Symposium on Languages, Applications and Technologies (SLATE 2022)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:12},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-245-7},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{104},
  editor =	{Cordeiro, Jo\~{a}o and Pereira, Maria Jo\~{a}o and Rodrigues, Nuno F. and Pais, Sebasti\~{a}o},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.SLATE.2022.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-167560},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.SLATE.2022.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: Hate Speech, Text Classification, Transfer Learning, Supervised Learning, Deep Learning}
}
Document
Semi-Supervised Annotation of Portuguese Hate Speech Across Social Media Domains

Authors: Raquel Bento Santos, Bernardo Cunha Matos, Paula Carvalho, Fernando Batista, and Ricardo Ribeiro

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 104, 11th Symposium on Languages, Applications and Technologies (SLATE 2022)


Abstract
With the increasing spread of hate speech (HS) on social media, it becomes urgent to develop models that can help detecting it automatically. Typically, such models require large-scale annotated corpora, which are still scarce in languages such as Portuguese. However, creating manually annotated corpora is a very expensive and time-consuming task. To address this problem, we propose an ensemble of two semi-supervised models that can be used to automatically create a corpus representative of online hate speech in Portuguese. The first model combines Generative Adversarial Networks and a BERT-based model. The second model is based on label propagation, and consists of propagating labels from existing annotated corpora to the unlabeled data, by exploring the notion of similarity. We have explored the annotations of three existing corpora (CO-HATE, ToLR-BR, and HPHS) in order to automatically annotate FIGHT, a corpus composed of geolocated tweets produced in the Portuguese territory. Through the process of selecting the best model and the corresponding setup, we have tested different pre-trained embeddings, performed experiments using different training subsets, labeled by different annotators with different perspectives, and performed several experiments with active learning. Furthermore, this work explores back translation as a mean to automatically generate additional hate speech samples. The best results were achieved by combining all the labeled datasets, obtaining 0.664 F1-score for the Hate Speech class in FIGHT.

Cite as

Raquel Bento Santos, Bernardo Cunha Matos, Paula Carvalho, Fernando Batista, and Ricardo Ribeiro. Semi-Supervised Annotation of Portuguese Hate Speech Across Social Media Domains. In 11th Symposium on Languages, Applications and Technologies (SLATE 2022). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 104, pp. 11:1-11:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{santos_et_al:OASIcs.SLATE.2022.11,
  author =	{Santos, Raquel Bento and Matos, Bernardo Cunha and Carvalho, Paula and Batista, Fernando and Ribeiro, Ricardo},
  title =	{{Semi-Supervised Annotation of Portuguese Hate Speech Across Social Media Domains}},
  booktitle =	{11th Symposium on Languages, Applications and Technologies (SLATE 2022)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:14},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-245-7},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{104},
  editor =	{Cordeiro, Jo\~{a}o and Pereira, Maria Jo\~{a}o and Rodrigues, Nuno F. and Pais, Sebasti\~{a}o},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.SLATE.2022.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-167570},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.SLATE.2022.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: Hate Speech, Semi-Supervised Learning, Semi-Automatic Annotation}
}
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